10-K
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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM
10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                  to                 
Commission File Number:
001-35429
BRIGHTCOVE INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
 
20-1579162
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
   
290 Congress Street
Boston, Massachusetts
 
02210
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(888)
882-1880
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of Each Class
  
Trading Symbol(s)
  
Name of Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
  
BCOV
  
The NASDAQ Global Market
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.     Yes  ☐     No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒     No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer   
Non-accelerated
filer
    Smaller reporting company   
Emerging growth company             
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    Yes      No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act).     Yes  ☐    No  
The aggregate market value of common stock held by
non-affiliates
of the registrant based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Market on June 30, 2021, was $576,531,928.
As of February 1
4
, 2022, there were 41,273,305 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its 202
2
 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form
10-K
where indicated. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.

Table of Contents
BRIGHTCOVE INC.
Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
  
Page
 
 
  
Item 1.
 
  
 
5
 
Item 1A.
 
  
 
15
 
Item 1B.
 
  
 
36
 
Item 2.
 
  
 
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Item 3.
 
  
 
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Item 4.
 
  
 
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Item 5.
 
  
 
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Item 6.
 
  
 
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Item 7.
 
  
 
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Item 7A.
 
  
 
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Item 8.
 
  
 
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Item 9.
 
  
 
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Item 9A.
 
  
 
58
 
Item 9B.
 
  
 
61
 
Item 9C.
 
  
 
61
 
 
  
Item 10.
 
  
 
61
 
Item 11.
 
  
 
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Item 12.
 
  
 
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Item 13.
 
  
 
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Item 14.
 
  
 
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Item 15.
 
  
 
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Item 16.
 
  
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form
10-K
contains “forward-looking statements” that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. The statements contained in this Annual Report on Form
10-K
that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or Exchange Act. Such forward-looking statements include any expectation of earnings, revenue or other financial items; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations; factors that may affect our operating results; statements related to adding employees; statements related to potential benefits of acquisitions; statements related to future capital expenditures; statements related to future economic conditions or performance; statements as to industry trends and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts or statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of our management based on information currently available to management. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause actual results and the timing of certain events to differ materially from future results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in Item 1A of Part I of this Annual Report on Form
10-K,
and the risks discussed in our other Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, filings. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form
10-K
may include statements about:
 
   
our ability to achieve profitability;
 
   
our competitive position and the effect of competition in our industry;
 
   
our ability to retain and attract new customers;
 
   
our ability to penetrate existing markets and develop new markets for our services;
 
   
our ability to retain or hire qualified accounting and other personnel;
 
   
our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses;
 
   
our ability to protect our intellectual property and operate our business without infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others;
 
   
our ability to maintain the security and reliability of our systems;
 
   
our estimates with regard to our future performance and total potential market opportunity;
 
   
our estimates regarding our anticipated results of operations, future revenue, bookings growth, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing; and
 
   
our goals and strategies, including those related to revenue and bookings growth.
 
3

Table of Contents
SUMMARY OF THE MATERIAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OUR BUSINESS
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that you should be aware of in evaluating our business, including those described in the “Risk Factors” section in Part I, Item 1A. of this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
   
We have a history of losses, we may continue to incur losses and we may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
 
   
Substantially all of our revenue has historically come from a single product, Video Cloud.
 
   
If we are unable to retain our existing customers, our revenue and results of operations will be adversely affected.
 
   
Our long-term financial targets are predicated on bookings and revenue growth and operating margin improvements that we may fail to achieve, which could reduce our expected earnings and cause us to fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors and cause the price of our securities to decline.
 
   
The actual market for our solutions could be significantly smaller than our estimates of our total potential market opportunity, and if customer demand for our services does not meet expectations, our ability to generate revenue and meet our financial targets could be adversely affected.
 
   
Our business is substantially dependent upon the continued growth of the market for
on-demand
software solutions.
 
   
Our operating results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter, which could make them difficult to predict.
 
   
We operate in a rapidly developing market, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects.
 
   
Our long-term success depends, in part, on our ability to expand the sales of our products to customers located outside of the United States, and thus our business is susceptible to risks associated with international sales and operations.
 
   
We are impacted by constantly-evolving government and industry regulation of the Internet, data privacy, and cybersecurity, which could directly restrict our business or indirectly affect our business by limiting the growth of our markets.
 
   
We use data center and cloud computing services facilities to deliver our services, and disruption of service at these facilities could harm our business.
The summary risk factors described above should be read together with the text of the full risk factors below, in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in the other information set forth in this Annual Report on
Form 10-K,
including our financial statements and the related notes, as well as in other documents that we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. If any such risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks summarized above or described in full below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
 
4

Table of Contents
PART I
 
Item 1.
Business
Overview
Brightcove Inc., or Brightcove
®
, is a leading global provider of cloud-based services for video. With our Emmy
®
-winning technology and award-winning services, we help our customers realize the potential of video to address business-critical challenges. Customers rely on our suite of products, services, and expertise to reduce the cost and complexity associated with publishing, distributing, measuring and monetizing video across devices.
Brightcove was incorporated in Delaware in August 2004 and our corporate headquarters are in Boston, Massachusetts. As of December 31, 2021, we had 3,135 customers in over 80 countries, including many of the world’s leading media companies, broadcasters, publishers, sports and entertainment companies, fashion and hospitality brands, faith-based institutions, retail and
e-commerce
platforms, and
hi-tech
organizations, as well as governments, educational institutions and
non-profit
organizations.
We sell five core video products that help our customers use video to further their businesses in meaningful ways:
(1) Brightcove Video Cloud
, or Video Cloud, our flagship product and the world’s leading online video platform, enables our customers to quickly and easily distribute high-quality video to Internet-connected devices;
(2) Brightcove Live
, our industry-leading solution for live streaming, delivers high-quality viewer experiences at scale;
(3) Brightcove Beacon
, a purpose-built application that enables companies to launch premium
over-the-top,
or OTT, video experiences quickly and cost effectively, across devices and with the flexibility of multiple monetization models;
(4) Brightcove Player
, an exceptionally fast, cloud-based technology for creating and managing video experiences; and
(5) Zencoder
®
, a powerful, cloud-based video encoding technology.
Customers can complement their use of our core video products with modular technologies that provide enhanced capabilities such as
(1) innovative ad insertion and video stitching through Brightcove SSAI
;
(2) efficient publication of videos to Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube through Brightcove Social
;
(3) an app for creating marketing campaigns with insightful data and industry benchmarks through Brightcove Campaign
; and
(4) the ability to create branded video experiences by accessing templates with
built-in
best practices through Brightcove Gallery
.
We have also brought to market several video solutions, which are suites of video technologies that address specific customer
use-cases
and needs, including:
(1) Brightcove CorpTV
offers companies a new way to deliver marketing videos, product announcements, training programs, and other live and
on-demand
content in a branded experience;
 
5

Table of Contents
(2) Virtual Events Experience
helps brands to transform events into customized virtual experiences;
(3) Brightcove Video Marketing Suite
, or Video Marketing Suite, enables marketers to use video to drive brand awareness, engagement and conversion; and
(4) Brightcove Enterprise Video Suite
, or Enterprise Video Suite, provides an enterprise-class platform for internal communications, employee training, live streaming, marketing and ecommerce videos.
We primarily generate revenue by offering our products to customers on a subscription-based, software as a service, or SaaS, model. Our revenue grew from $197.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 to $211.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2021. As of December 31, 2021, we had 3,135 customers, of which 908 used our premium offerings and 2,227 used our volume offerings. Substantially all of our revenue has historically been attributable to our Video Cloud product, and we expect that revenue from Video Cloud will continue to comprise a significant portion of our revenue. In addition to being offered on a stand-alone basis, Video Cloud is also a core component of Video Marketing Suite, Enterprise Video Suite, Brightcove Beacon, Virtual Event Experience, and Brightcove CorpTV
TM
.
Our Solutions
Our solutions provide our customers with the following key benefits:
 
   
Comprehensive, modular and scalable solutions
. Our core products and solutions meet a range of video publishing and distribution needs, and can be integrated with modular technology to create customized video workflows. We offer
end-to-end
solutions of video technologies built for media companies and marketers, as well as, modular solutions that customers can license on a stand-alone basis and integrate into their existing video workflows. In addition, our multi-tenant architecture enables us to deliver each of our solutions across our customer base with a single version of our software for each product, making it easier to scale our solutions as our customer base and end user base expands.
 
   
Easy to use and low total cost of ownership
. We designed our products to be intuitive and easy to use. We provide reliable, cost-effective,
on-demand
solutions to our customers, relieving them of the cost, time and resources associated with
in-house
solutions and enabling them to be up and running quickly after signing with us.
 
   
Open platforms and extensive ecosystem
. Our open platform enables developers to easily access our public-facing APIs and build and manage integrations with our products. In 2021, we launched the Brightcove Marketplace
, a venue for our customers to discover and connect with our technology partners who specialize in areas such as content creation, fanbase engagement, and monetization of video assets. The Brightcove Marketplace features several dozen partners, from leading technologies like Google, Zoom, Oracle and Microsoft, to niche emerging technologies. Our global ecosystem of partners also includes companies like Amazon, Akamai, and Fastly among others.
 
   
Help customers achieve business objectives
. Our customers use our products to achieve critical business objectives such as monetizing content, increasing conversion rates for transactions, engaging audiences through virtual events, increasing brand awareness and expanding their audiences, driving site traffic, increasing viewer engagement on their sites, internal communications, employee training and customer support. We believe our customers view us as a strategic partner in part because our business model is not dependent on building our own audience or generating our own ad revenue. Our business interests align with our customers’ interests, as we each benefit from the success of our customers’ online video strategy.
 
   
Ongoing customer-driven development
. Through our sales engineers, customer success and support teams, product teams and regular outreach from senior leadership, we solicit and capture feedback from our customer base for incorporation into ongoing enhancements to our solutions. We regularly provide
 
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our customers with enhancements to our products. Delivering cloud-based solutions allows us to serve additional customers with little incremental expense and to deploy innovations and best practices quickly and efficiently to our existing customers.
Our Business Strengths
We believe that the following business strengths differentiate us from our competitors and are key to our success:
 
   
We are the recognized online video platform market leader
. In 2021, our customers used Video Cloud to deliver a total of 46.91 billion streams an average of approximately 3.91 billion video streams per month, which we believe is more video streams per month than any other professional solution. We have over 90 industry-leading patents, and we have received numerous awards for our market leadership from industry analysts such as Aragon Research Globe in January 2022, Frost & Sullivan, Gartner, and associations such as the Technology & Services Industry Association for Support Staff Excellence. In January 2021 we were recognized with two Emmy
®
Awards for excellence and creativity in technology and engineering for our encoding and transcoding technology. The Brightcove platform was used to enable several high-profile virtual events throughout 2021, such as the 2021 South by Southwest
®
Conference and Festival, The Dana-Farber Campaign, Defy Cancer online event, and the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra’s 2021 season.
 
   
We have established a global presence
. We have established a global presence with operations in Europe, Japan, Korea, Asia Pacific, India and Mexico. Today, we have employees in fourteen countries. We built our solutions to be localized into almost any language and we offer 24/7 customer support worldwide. As of December 31, 2021, organizations throughout the world used Video Cloud to reach viewers in approximately 249 countries and territories.
 
   
We have high visibility and predictability in our business
. We generally sell our subscription and support services through monthly or annual contracts and recognize revenue ratably over the committed term. The majority of our revenue comes from annual contracts. Our existing contracts provide us with visibility into revenue that has not yet been recognized. We have also achieved an overall recurring dollar retention rate of at least 85% in each of the last four fiscal quarters, including 85%, 86%, 93% and 94% for the three months ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021, September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Our business model and customer loyalty provide greater levels of recurring revenue and predictability compared to traditional, perpetual-license business models.
 
   
We have customers of all sizes across multiple industries
. We offer different editions of our products tailored to meet the needs of organizations of various sizes and across industries. Our offerings range from entry-level editions to enterprise-level editions used by multiple departments in a single organization.
 
   
Our management team has experience building and scaling software companies
. Our senior leadership team has built innovative software platform businesses. Members of our senior leadership team have held senior product, business and technology roles at companies such as CA Technologies, DS SolidWorks, Ellucian, Fidelity Investments, Progress Software, IBM, and Quanterix.
Our Customers
As of December 31, 2021, we had 3,135 customers in over 80 countries and territories. We provide our solutions to many of the world’s leading media companies, broadcasters, publishers, sports and entertainment companies, fashion and hospitality brands and corporations, faith-based institutions, retail and
e-commerce
platforms, and
hi-tech
organizations, as well as governments, educational institutions and
non-profit
organizations. We believe our solutions can benefit any organization with digital video content.
 
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Our Products and Services
We create technology that helps our customers use video to further their businesses in meaningful ways. To that end, we sell five core video products: Video Cloud, Brightcove Live, Brightcove Beacon, the Brightcove Player, and Zencoder, each of which can be enhanced with modular technologies that target a specific business need. We have also brought to market several video solutions, which are technology packages that address particular customer
use-cases.
Core Video Products
1. Brightcove Video Cloud
Brightcove Video Cloud is the world’s leading online video platform. It enables our customers to publish and distribute video to Internet-connected devices quickly, easily and in a cost-effective and high-quality manner. Our innovative technology and intuitive user interface give customers control over a wide range of features and functionality needed to publish and deliver a compelling user experience, including the ability to:
 
   
upload videos in various formats for adaptive encoding that maximizes quality and minimizes file size, and deliver videos to myriad operating systems, including
web-based
experiences, smartphones, tablets, media streaming devices and connected TVs;
 
   
organize and manage their media library by creating playlists and setting rules to define where and when videos can be viewed;
 
   
rely on fast load times, fast video starts, and easily-configured players, which include
built-in
support for advertising, analytics and content protection, and provide a consistent cross-platform playback experience;
 
   
broadcast live video with multiple live streams at different quality levels and renditions that best match each viewer’s available bandwidth, processor utilization and player size;
 
   
expand audience reach by leveraging the social network of their viewers, including sharing complete videos or video clips through Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and other social destinations;
 
   
grow and monetize their audience with video ad features such as tools for ad insertions and
built-in
ad server and network integrations;
 
   
optimize and support online video publishing and distribution strategy through video analytics;
 
   
customize, extend and integrate with our platform through APIs and SDKs for iOS, tvOS, Android and AndroidTV; and
 
   
securely stream corporate live and on-demand video communications to employees’ devices using the Brightcove Engage
platform.
2. Brightcove Live
Brightcove Live is our live streaming solution, which enables
non-technical
users to set up live events without the need for hardware encoders or development work. Brightcove Live leverages our globally distributed architecture, and delivers high quality viewer experience across multiple platforms and devices. It includes features such as live clipping, which allows customers to create and publish clips of a live stream to social channels; security through DRM encryption; the ability to create
video-on-demand
assets from a live stream; and the ability to allow viewers to pause, play and rewind a live stream.
3. Brightcove Beacon
Brightcove Beacon is a purpose-built app that enables our customers to launch premium OTT video experiences quickly and cost effectively across mobile, web, smart TVs and connected TVs, with the flexibility of multiple monetization models. It allows customers to curate and deliver content to their audience segments, automate the curation of playlists and carousels, securely store and deliver content with DRM protection,
 
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automate content availability windows and configure VOD and live content offerings for any demographic changes that occur throughout the day or week. Customers can also manage viewers with a frictionless viewer registration experience, and offer viewer profiles to maintain watch history and preferences and manage stream concurrency and account sharing. Through Brightcove Beacon, customers can also gather insights on viewer behavior to inform their decisions about programming, layout and monetization
4. Brightcove Player
The Brightcove Player offers leading video player technology with a cloud-based service for creating and managing video player experiences across the maximum range of operating systems and platforms. It leverages HTML5-first technology and is designed to have the fastest load times and the fastest video starts. The Brightcove Player is optimized to reduce network traffic and allows customers to deploy changes to thousands of player embeds with batch publishing to accelerate
time-to-market.
The Brightcove Player allows for responsive design, social sharing tools, and support for adaptive bitrate streaming, and is easily customized with APIs, SDKs and a robust ecosystem of plugins and integrations, including
built-in
support for advertising, analytics and content protection, as well as numerous open-source plugins from the Video.js community.
5. Zencoder
Zencoder is a cloud-based video encoding service, providing extremely fast, high-quality, and reliable encoding of live and
on-demand
video and access to highly scalable encoding power without the expense, management, and scalability limitations of traditional hardware and software. Customers are able to integrate Zencoder with a simple API, and manage accounts and encoding jobs from an intuitive online dashboard. Zencoder accepts files in an extensive range of formats and codecs, supports video output to a multitude of devices, and includes tools to support high quality video output and to adjust and edit video. It is globally distributed and includes advanced security features.
Modular Technologies
1. Brightcove SSAI
Brightcove SSAI is an innovative, cloud-based, server-side ad insertion and video stitching service that addresses the limitations of traditional online video ad insertion technology. SSAI reduces or eliminates the need for platform-specific ad technology and makes it possible for customers to reliably deliver live or
on-demand
video with dynamically-customized programming and targeted ads to the maximum range of devices.
2. Brightcove Social
Brightcove Social is a tool for managing video presence across social networks from a single interface. With Brightcove Social, customers can clip and publish videos from Video Cloud to the native playback environments of Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, as well as their own websites, and track video performance across these destinations from a single location.
3. Brightcove Campaign
Brightcove Campaign is a purpose-built application that enables marketers to easily create video-driven marketing campaigns that yield insightful data with the ability to compare video performance to a variety of industry benchmarks. Brightcove Campaign also includes
out-of-the-box
marketing automation integrations with Eloqua, Marketo, HubSpot, and Salesforce and analytics integrations with Google and Adobe Analytics.
4. Brightcove Gallery
Brightcove Gallery is a service that helps customers create custom branded portals, video-centric landing pages, and live streaming event websites. Through Brightcove Gallery, customers access an intuitive interface
 
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and templates to easily create interactive video experiences that leverage marketing best practices and security features and help customers maximize revenue opportunities, expand audiences, and drive engagement.
Video Solutions
1. Virtual Events Experience
Virtual Events Experience provides a platform for customers to create customized, immersive live and
always-on
virtual experiences. We help customers create fully-branded experiences by integrating video into a customer’s existing website or mobile app, and offer our proven technology and support to deliver high-quality, scalable experiences. We partner with leading event management services to provide customers the full suite of services needed for hosting virtual events. With Virtual Events Experience, customers seamlessly manage attendees, engage audiences with live keynotes and
video-on-demand
breakout sessions, display sponsor ads, access viewer analytics, secure their content, and rely on dedicated live technical and onboarding support.
2. Video Marketing Suite
Video Marketing Suite is a comprehensive suite of video technologies designed to address the needs of marketers to drive awareness, engagement and conversion. Video Marketing Suite is a bundled offering of Video Cloud, Brightcove Gallery, and Brightcove Social. It delivers functionality such as improved SEO, visibility and tracking of key prospects and customers, analytics, customized interactive video, video portals and landing pages. By introducing the Brightcove Marketing Studio
, we enhance the Video Marketing Suite with a new communications solution that makes it easy for marketing teams to access, implement, and measure video content across programs, using intuitive workspaces tailored to each marketing function.
3. Enterprise Video Suite
Enterprise Video Suite is an enterprise-class platform that is designed to reduce the cost and complexity traditionally involved with internal video communications. The platform enables organizations to stream live internal town halls, train sales teams, ramp new employees, and build customized video portals. Enterprise Video Suite is a bundled offering of Video Cloud, Gallery, and Brightcove Live. It offers security features like IP restriction, URL tokenization, and single sign on, as well as analytics on user-level video engagement.
4. Brightcove CorpTV
Brightcove CorpTV is a solution designed for companies to think and act like media brands. Brightcove CorpTV enables organizations to create channels that stream content to customers, employees, and other target audiences, each with their own, audience-specific, content. Brightcove CorpTV will help companies forge stronger connections with their customers, partners, and employees over any device, including smart TVs, by streaming branded stories, shows, case studies, demos, training content, speeches, panels, tech explainers, cause-related content, and entertaining diversions. Companies can even sell ad time, sponsorships, and premium content on their Brightcove CorpTV channels. Companies will be able to consolidate video repositories, measure viewership, and maintain a continuous connection with their audiences.
Editions
Each of our products is offered to customers on a subscription-based SaaS model, with varying levels of usage entitlements, support and, in certain cases, functionality. Our customers generally pay us a monthly or annual subscription fee for access to our products. This model allows our customers to scale their level of investment and usage based on the size and complexity of their needs.
Video Cloud is offered in two product lines. The first product line is comprised of our premium product editions. All premium editions include functionality to publish and distribute video to Internet-connected devices, with higher levels of the premium editions providing additional features and functionality. The second product
 
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line is comprised of our volume product edition. Our volume editions target small and
medium-sized
businesses, or SMBs. Video Cloud is generally available in Starter, Pro and Enterprise editions. The volume editions provide customers with the same basic functionality that is offered in our premium product editions but have been designed for customers who have lower usage requirements and do not typically require advanced features or functionality.
Video Marketing Suite and Enterprise Video Suite are each generally available in Starter, Pro and Enterprise editions. The Starter edition for each provides customers with the same basic functionality that is offered in the Pro and Enterprise editions but has been designed for customers who have lower usage requirements and do not typically require advanced features and functionality. All Video Marketing Suite and Enterprise Video Suite customers are considered premium customers.
Zencoder customers are considered premium customers other than Zencoder customers on
month-to-month
contracts or
pay-as-you-go
contracts, which are considered volume customers.
All other customers are considered premium customers.
Customer Success and Support
Our customer success and customer support teams are involved from the very beginning of a customer’s journey with Brightcove, leveraging our teams’ global presence to engage with customers through multiple touchpoints and develop close customer relationships that have led to
best-in-class
CSAT scores. Our dedicated customer success team offers customized onboarding and related services to new and existing customers to help with technology setup and adoption, and maximizing the value of our products and services to help customers reach their business goals. This team is focused on ongoing customer success and engagement, as well as contract renewals and upsells to our customer base.
Customer support from our TSIA-certified team is included for all of our products, and provides customers access to our support team via a web portal. Customers who upgrade to premium editions of our support packages gain additional features such as faster response times, access to a dedicated Customer Success representative, additional contact options dedicated live event support, live channel monitoring, and 24x7x365 support.
We support our customers across time zones and in multiple languages, from offices in Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo, Seoul, Singapore, Guadalajara and Chennai.
Training
We offer free basic online training to registered users of our products. We also offer customized, onsite training for customers that is priced on a per engagement basis.
Professional Services
While our products are easy for customers to use and deploy without any additional specialized services, we offer a range of professional services for customers who seek customization of our products, need assistance with their implementations, or require assistance with the integration of our products with
in-house
or third-party applications. These professional services are priced on a retainer, time and materials, or a per project basis and include projects such as content migrations from other vendors or
in-house
solutions, video player enhancements, mobile and connected TV app development, the creation of web pages optimized for video, and customization of virtual event experiences.
Sales and Marketing
We sell our products primarily through our global direct sales organization. Our sales team is organized by the following geographic regions: Americas, Europe and the Middle East, Asia Pacific, and Japan. We further
 
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organize our
go-to-market
approach by focusing our sales and marketing teams on selling to organizations in a wide range of industries, who generally want to monetize video content by distributing it to a broad audience or use video for sales, marketing, education, employee training, or enterprise communication purposes.
We also generate sales through a comprehensive partner program that is composed of referral partners, solution partners, and managed service providers, channel partners and resellers. Our ability to grow and maintain a global, diverse set of quality channel partners extends our market reach, which allows us to meet the specific nuances of local markets around the world, and reduces our overall cost of sales.
We generate customer leads, accelerate sales opportunities and build brand awareness through our marketing programs. Our marketing programs target executives, technology professionals and senior business leaders. Our marketing programs typically target specific geographies and industry segments. Our principal marketing programs include:
 
   
public relations and social media;
 
   
online event marketing activities, direct email, search engine marketing and display ads and blogs;
 
   
field marketing events for customers and prospects;
 
   
participation in, and sponsorship of, user conferences, trade shows and industry events;
 
   
use of our website to provide product and organization information, as well as learning opportunities for potential customers;
 
   
cooperative marketing efforts with partners, including joint press announcements, joint trade show activities, channel marketing campaigns and joint seminars;
 
   
telemarketing and lead generation representatives who respond to incoming leads to convert them into new sales opportunities; and
 
   
customer programs, including user meetings and our online customer community.
Operations
We have relationships with a number of third-party cloud computing platforms to provide our products and services to customers, and we believe that our agreements with these platforms are based on competitive market terms and conditions, including service level commitments. We take advantage of this geographically dispersed, third-party, cloud computing capacity to improve the responsiveness of our service and lower network latency for our customers.
Media delivery to end users, including video, audio, images and JavaScript components, is served primarily through CDN providers, including Akamai, Fastly, and AWS Cloudfront. We believe our agreements with our CDN providers are based on competitive market terms and conditions, including service level commitments from these CDN providers.
We entered into our initial agreement with Akamai in July 2010. It enables us to use Akamai CDN services for our own benefit and to resell Akamai CDN services to our customers. The current expiration date of the agreement is April 30, 2022.
We entered into our initial agreement with Fastly in May 2020. It enables us to use Fastly CDN services for our own benefit and to resell Fastly CDN services to our customers. The current expiration date of the agreement is April 30, 2022.
Our agreements with each of Akamai and Fastly contain a service continuation period following expiration of the agreement, which we believe is sufficient to enable transition to an alternative provider to avoid material disruption to our business or to our customers. Our agreement with Akamai provides that, upon termination,
 
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Akamai will continue to provide CDN services to our existing customers for up to twelve months. Our agreement with Fastly provides that, upon termination by Fastly, Fastly will continue to provide CDN services for up to six months.
We use AWS to provide cloud-based computing, storage and CDN services to our customers. We entered into our initial agreement with AWS on May 17, 2012. The current expiration date of our agreement with AWS is June 30, 2022. Our agreement with AWS provides that, upon termination, AWS will continue to store our content for 30 days and will, upon mutual agreement, provide additional post-termination assistance.
Intellectual Property
We rely principally on a combination of trademark, patent, copyright and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our proprietary technology, confidential information, business strategies and brands. We also believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our employees coupled with the creation of new features, functionality and products are essential to establishing and maintaining a technology leadership position. We enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and confidentiality agreements with other third parties, and we rigorously control access to our proprietary technology.
In the United States, we have 52 issued and/or allowed patents and 7 patent applications pending. Internationally, we have 42 issued and/or allowed patents and we are currently pursuing 23 patent applications, including two patent applications undergoing examination at the European Patent Office. We currently have patent applications pending in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Brazil, Europe, Hong Kong, India, Japan, and Singapore, and we may seek coverage in additional jurisdictions to the extent we determine such coverage is appropriate and cost-effective. Our issued patents cover a variety of technical domains relevant to our business, including aspects of publishing and distributing digital media online, cloud-based stream delivery and ad insertion.
Our registered trademarks in the United States include “BRIGHTCOVE”, “ZENCODER”, “VIDEO THAT MEANS BUSINESS”, and our logo. Some of our trademarks are also registered in certain
non-U.S.
jurisdictions, including the United Kingdom, Japan and Canada. We may apply for registrations of other marks, and of these marks in additional jurisdictions, to the extent we determine such coverage is appropriate and cost-effective.
Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or obtain and use our technology to develop products with the same functionality as our solutions. Policing unauthorized use of our technology is difficult and expensive. Our competitors could also independently develop technologies equivalent to ours, and our intellectual property rights may not be broad enough for us to prevent competitors from selling products incorporating those technologies.
Competition
We compete with video-sharing sites,
in-house
solutions, online video platforms and a broad range of other technology providers. Some of our actual and potential competitors may enjoy competitive advantages over us, such as larger marketing budgets and larger sales teams, as well as greater financial, technical and other resources. The overall markets for our products are fragmented, rapidly evolving and highly competitive.
We expect that the competitive landscape will change as our markets consolidate and mature. We believe the principal competitive factors in our industry include the following:
 
   
total cost of ownership;
 
   
breadth and depth of product functionality;
 
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ability to innovate and respond to customer needs rapidly;
 
   
level of resources and investment in sales, marketing, product and technology;
 
   
ease of deployment and use of solutions;
 
   
level of integration into existing workflows, configurability, scalability and reliability;
 
   
customer service;
 
   
brand awareness and reputation;
 
   
ability to integrate with third-party applications and technologies;
 
   
size and scale of provider; and
 
   
size of customer base and level of user adoption.
The mix of factors relevant in any given situation varies with regard to each prospective customer. We believe we compete favorably with respect to all of these factors.
Some of our competitors have made or may make acquisitions or enter into partnerships or other strategic relationships to offer a more comprehensive service than we do. These combinations may make it more difficult for us to compete effectively, including on the basis of price, sales and marketing programs, technology or service functionality. We expect these challenges to continue as organizations attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions.
Research and Development
We have focused our research and development efforts on maintaining a leading video streaming platform that is reliable, scalable, and open; cultivating an intelligent video cloud powered by artificial intelligence and machine learning; and leveraging our video and audience insights to provide value to our customers in the form of tangible solutions. We have expanded, and will continue to expand the functionality, scalability, and security of our products and enhance their ease of use, and we continue to invest in creating new product offerings. We have created a Chief Data Officer role to steer our development of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data strategies. We expect research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we intend to continue to lead in the development of new technologies, regularly release new features and functionality, expand our product offerings and upgrade and extend our service offerings. Over the long term, we believe that research and development expenses as a percentage of revenue will decrease, but will vary depending upon the mix of revenue from new and existing products, features and functionality, as well as changes in the technology that our products must support, such as new operating systems or new Internet-connected devices.
Human Capital Resources
Brightcove employees are a team of smart, passionate people who are revolutionizing the way organizations deliver video experiences. As of December 31, 2021, we had 687 employees, of which 318 were located in the United States and 369 were located outside of the United States. None of our United States employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement and we have not experienced any work stoppages. We have a high degree of employee engagement, as demonstrated through participation in employee surveys, and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good.
We have built a culture around three core values, all of which guide us in delivering at the highest level on behalf of our customers: Execution, Innovation, and One Team. We recognize that maintaining our culture and realizing these values depends on our ability to attract, develop, and retain talent. To that end, we offer high quality benefits, including work-from-home flexibility and wellness initiatives, which take into account the diversity of our employees’ lifestyles and needs. Our leadership speaks with transparency at regular
all-employee
 
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town hall meetings, and we create opportunities for employee feedback, including through engagement surveys and our Employee Action Committee. Leveraging the power of our own video products, we provide a comprehensive library of training videos to all employees, as well as targeted training to our leadership team.
We are committed to diversity at all levels of our organization, from our Board of Directors, where a majority of members are from underrepresented groups, to our employees. We have established hiring processes, training, and partnerships with organizations to drive diversity and inclusion among our workforce. Programs such as our employee resource groups provide community and support for our employees.
Since the
COVID-19
pandemic began, we have remained focused first and foremost on the safety and wellbeing of our employees and their families around the world. In 2020, we adapted to a remote workforce, including by providing a stipend for employees to create work places at home, and resources for coping with the challenging times. We prioritized regular communication with employees in order to maintain a strong sense of community within the organization. We continued these measures in 2021, while also carefully opening some of our offices to provide employees with the option of working from an office if they so choose. We continue to monitor and follow local requirements with respect to safety measures in each office location.
Government Regulations
Information about segment and geographic revenue is set forth in Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
We are a global company based in the U.S., and are therefore subject to foreign laws governing our foreign operations, as well as U.S. laws that restrict trade and certain practices, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. We are also subject to domestic and foreign laws that affect companies conducting business on the internet, including laws relating to the liability of providers of online services.
We may also be subject to laws concerning the videos our customers publish using the Brightcove service. In the U.S., we rely on laws that limit the liability of online providers for third-party content, including the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA) and Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act of 1996. Countries outside the U.S. generally do not provide protections that are as robust as those under the DMCA and Section 230.
We process a limited amount of personal information from our customers and those who view the videos they share using our video platform. As a result, we are subject to laws and regulations governing privacy and data security in the U.S. and worldwide, such as Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, the EU’s General Data Protection Law (GDPR), and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA).
Available Information
Our principal executive offices are located at 290 Congress Street, Boston, Massachusetts, 02210. Our telephone number is
(888) 882-1880.
Our website address is
www.brightcove.com
. Our Annual Reports on Form
10-K,
Quarterly Reports on Form
10-Q,
Current Reports on Form
8-K
and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are available free of charge through the investor relations page of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission. The information that is posted on or is accessible through our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form
10-K
and should not be considered part of this or any other report that we file with or furnish to the SEC. Alternatively, these reports may be accessed at the SEC’s website at
www.sec.gov
.
 
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
You should carefully review the risk factors described below and those described in other reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, as well as the other information contained in this Annual Report
 
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on Form
10-K,
in evaluating our business. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. If any of such risks and uncertainties actually occurs, our business, financial condition or operating results could differ materially from the plans, projections and other forward-looking statements included in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this report and in our other public filings. The trading price of our common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.
Risks related to our business
We have a history of losses, we may continue to incur losses and we may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We have historically incurred significant losses in fiscal years from 2004 through 2020. Though we have not experienced a consolidated net loss for the year ended December 31, 2021, we experienced a consolidated net loss of $5.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and a consolidated net loss of $21.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. These losses were due to the substantial investments we made to build our products and services, grow and maintain our business and acquire customers. Key elements of our growth strategy include acquiring new customers and continuing to innovate and build our brand. As a result, we expect our operating expenses to increase in the future due to expected increased sales and marketing expenses, operations costs, research and development costs and general and administrative costs and, therefore, our operating income may potentially decrease in the foreseeable future. In addition, as a public company we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. Furthermore, to the extent that we are successful in increasing our customer base, we will also incur increased expenses because costs associated with generating and supporting customer agreements are generally incurred up front, while revenue is generally recognized ratably over the committed term of the agreement. You should not rely upon our recent bookings or revenue growth as indicative of our future performance. We cannot assure you that we will sustain profitability in the future. If we are ultimately unable to continue generating sufficient revenue to meet our financial targets, remain profitable and have sustainable positive cash flows, investors could lose their investment.
Substantially all of our revenue has historically come from a single product, Video Cloud.
We have historically been substantially dependent on revenue from a single product, Video Cloud, and we expect that revenue from Video Cloud will continue to comprise a significant portion of our revenue. Our business would be harmed by a decline in the market for Video Cloud, increased competition in the market for online video platforms, or our failure or inability to provide sufficient investment to support Video Cloud as needed to maintain or grow its competitive position.
If we are unable to retain our existing customers, our revenue and results of operations will be adversely affected.
We sell our products pursuant to agreements that are generally for annual terms. Our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions after their subscription period expires, and we have experienced losses of customers that elected not to renew, in some cases, for reasons beyond our control. For example, our largest customer during 2020 faced bankruptcy and, as a result, we lost substantially all of the revenue we expected to generate from this customer in 2020. In addition, even if subscriptions are renewed, they may not be renewed on the same or on more profitable terms. As a result, our ability to retain our existing customers and grow depends in part on subscription renewals. We may not be able to accurately predict future trends in customer renewals, and our customers’ renewal rates have and may continue to fluctuate because of several factors, including their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our services, the cost of our services and the cost of services offered by our competitors, a customer’s ability to build a video streaming solution
in-house,
reductions in our customers’ spending levels or the introduction by competitors of attractive features and functionality. If our customer
 
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retention rate decreases, we may need to increase the rate at which we add new customers in order to maintain and grow our revenue, which may require us to incur significantly higher sales and marketing expenses than we currently anticipate, or our revenue may decline. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our services, renew on less favorable terms, or do not purchase additional functionality or subscriptions, our revenue may grow more slowly than expected or decline, and our profitability and gross margins may be harmed or affected.
Our long term financial targets are predicated on bookings and revenue growth and operating margin improvements that we may fail to achieve, which could reduce our expected earnings and cause us to fail to meet the expectations of analysts or investors and cause the price of our securities to decline.
We are projecting long-term bookings and revenue growth. Our projections are based on the expected growth potential in our premium customer base, as well as the market for
on-demand
software solutions generally. We may not achieve the expected bookings and revenue growth if the markets we serve do not grow at expected rates, if customers do not purchase or renew subscriptions as we expect, and/or if we are not able to deliver products desired by customers and potential customers. Our long-term operating margin improvement targets are predicated on operating leverage as long term revenue increases and improved operating efficiencies from moving to additional cloud-based delivery of services, together with lower cost of goods sold, research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses as a percentage of total revenue. If operating margins do not improve, our earnings could be adversely affected and the price of our securities could decline.
The actual market for our solutions could be significantly smaller than our estimates of our total potential market opportunity, and if customer demand for our services does not meet expectations, our ability to generate revenue and meet our financial targets could be adversely affected.
While we expect strong growth in the markets for our products, it is possible that the growth in some or all of these markets may not meet our expectations, or materialize at all. The methodology on which our estimate of our total potential market opportunity is based includes several key assumptions based on our industry knowledge and customer experience. If any of these assumptions proves to be inaccurate, then the actual market for our solutions could be significantly smaller than our estimates of our total potential market opportunity. If the customer demand for our services or the adoption rate in our target markets does not meet our expectations, our ability to generate revenue from customers and meet our financial targets could be adversely affected.
Our business is substantially dependent upon the continued growth of the market for
on-demand
software solutions.
We derive, and expect to continue to derive, substantially all of our revenue from the sale of our
on-demand
solutions. As a result, widespread acceptance and use of the
on-demand
business model is critical to our future growth and success. Under the perpetual or periodic license model for software procurement, users of the software would typically install and operate the applications on their hardware. Because many companies are generally predisposed to maintaining control of their information technology, or IT, systems and infrastructure, there may be resistance to the concept of accessing software as a service provided by a third party. In addition, the market for
on-demand
software solutions is still evolving, and competitive dynamics may cause pricing levels to change as the market matures and as existing and new market participants introduce new types of solutions and different approaches to enable organizations to address their technology needs. As a result, we may be forced to reduce the prices we charge for our products and may be unable to renew existing customer agreements or enter into new customer agreements at the same prices and upon the same terms that we have historically. If the market for
on-demand
software solutions fails to grow, grows more slowly than we currently anticipate or evolves and forces us to reduce the prices we charge for our products, our bookings growth, revenue, gross margin and other operating results could be materially adversely affected.
 
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Our operating results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter, which could make them difficult to predict.
Our quarterly operating results are tied to certain financial and operational metrics that have fluctuated in the past and may fluctuate significantly in the future. As a result, you should not rely upon our past quarterly operating results as indicators of future performance. Our operating results depend on numerous factors, many of which are outside of our control. In addition to the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, the following risks could cause our operating results to fluctuate:
 
   
our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers;
 
   
the rates at which our customers renew;
 
   
the amount of revenue generated from our customers’ use of our products or services in excess of their committed contractual entitlements;
 
   
the timing and amount of costs of new and existing sales and marketing efforts;
 
   
the timing and amount of operating costs and capital expenditures relating to the expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;
 
   
the cost and timing of the development and introduction of new product and service offerings by us or our competitors;
 
   
impacts on the national and global economies due to natural disasters, acts of terrorism, social upheaval, governmental instability, or public health emergencies, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
system or service failures (including service failures from third party providers on which we rely), security breaches or network downtime.
We operate in a rapidly developing market, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects.
The market for our products and services is rapidly developing, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects. We have encountered, and will continue to encounter, risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including those related to:
 
   
market acceptance of our current and future products and services;
 
   
customer renewal rates;
 
   
our ability to compete with other companies that are currently in, or may in the future enter, the market for our products;
 
   
our ability to compete with customers or prospective customers that develop
in-house
solutions instead of purchasing our products;
 
   
our ability to successfully expand our business, especially internationally;
 
   
our ability to control costs, including our operating expenses;
 
   
the amount and timing of operating expenses, particularly sales and marketing expenses, related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;
 
   
network outages or security breaches and any associated expenses;
 
   
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;
 
   
write-downs, impairment charges or unforeseen liabilities in connection with acquisitions;
 
   
our ability to successfully manage acquisitions; and
 
   
general economic and political conditions in our domestic and international markets.
If we do not manage these risks successfully, our business will be harmed.
 
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Our long-term success depends, in part, on our ability to expand the sales of our products to customers located outside of the United States, and thus our business is susceptible to risks associated with international sales and operations.
We currently maintain offices and have sales personnel in Australia, France, India, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Mexico, Philippines, Portugal, Germany, and the United Kingdom, and we intend to expand our international operations. Any international expansion efforts that we may undertake may not be successful. In addition, conducting international operations subjects us to new risks that we have not generally faced in the United States. These risks include:
 
   
unexpected costs and errors in the localization of our products, including translation into foreign languages and adaptation for local practices and regulatory requirements;
 
   
lack of familiarity with and burdens of complying with foreign laws, legal standards, regulatory requirements, tariffs, and other barriers;
 
   
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, taxes, trade laws, tariffs, export quotas, custom duties or other trade restrictions;
 
   
difficulties in managing systems integrators and technology partners;
 
   
differing technology standards;
 
   
longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
 
   
difficulties in managing and staffing international operations and differing employer/employee relationships;
 
   
fluctuations in exchange rates that may increase the volatility of our foreign-based revenue;
 
   
potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added tax (or other tax) systems and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;
 
   
uncertain political and economic climates (including, for example, the U.K.’s exit from the European Union, or EU, on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as “Brexit”, which has created economic and political uncertainty in the EU); and
 
   
reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries.
These factors may cause our costs of doing business in these geographies to exceed our comparable domestic costs. Operating in international markets also requires significant management attention and financial resources. Any negative impact from our international business efforts could negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition as a whole.
Economic conditions and regulatory changes following the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
On January 31, 2020, the U.K. formally left the European Union, or EU, (commonly known as “Brexit”), however there was an initial transition period until December 31, 2020 during which EU rules and legislation continued to apply. Since then, the U.K. and the EU have signed a
EU-UK
Trade and Cooperation Agreement, or TCA, which became provisionally applicable on January 1, 2021 and has been formally applicable since May 1, 2021. The TCA provides details on how some aspects of the U.K. and EU’s relationship will operate going forwards (including certain aspects of trade and other strategic and political issues), however there are still many uncertainties. The uncertainties concerning the U.K.’s legal, political and economic relationship with the EU following Brexit may continue to be a source of instability in international markets, create significant currency fluctuations and otherwise adversely affect trading agreements or similar cross-border cooperation arrangements, whether economic, tax, fiscal, legal, regulatory or otherwise.
 
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The full effects of Brexit will depend on how the terms of the TCA and any future agreements signed by the U.K. and EU play out in practice. At this time, we therefore cannot predict the impact that Brexit will have on our business. The measures could potentially disrupt the markets we serve and may cause us to lose customers and employees. In addition, Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which EU laws to replace or replicate, which could present new regulatory costs and challenges (including the transfer of personal data between the EU and the U.K. and new customer requirements), in addition to other adverse effects that we are unable to effectively anticipate.
Our financial condition and results of operations may be impacted by such uncertainty with potential disruptions to our relationships with existing and future customers, suppliers and employees, all possibly having a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We must keep up with rapid technological change to remain competitive in a rapidly evolving industry.
Our markets are characterized by rapid technological change, frequent new product and service introductions and evolving industry standards. Our future success will depend on our ability to adapt quickly to rapidly changing technologies, to adapt our services and products to evolving industry standards and to improve the performance and reliability of our services and products. To achieve market acceptance for our products, we must effectively anticipate and offer products that meet changing customer demands in a timely manner. Customers may require features and functionality that our current products do not have. If we fail to develop products that satisfy customer preferences in a timely and cost-effective manner, our ability to renew our contracts with existing customers and our ability to create or increase demand for our products will be harmed.
We may experience difficulties with software development, industry standards, design or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction or implementation of new products and enhancements. The introduction of new products by competitors, the emergence of new industry standards or the development of entirely new technologies to replace existing offerings could render our existing or future products obsolete.
If we are unable to successfully develop or acquire new features and functionality, enhance our existing products to anticipate and meet customer requirements or sell our products into new markets, our bookings growth, revenue and results of operations will be adversely affected.
We face significant competition and may be unsuccessful against current and future competitors. If we do not compete effectively, our operating results and future growth could be harmed.
We compete with video sharing sites,
in-house
solutions, online video platforms and certain niche technology providers, as well as larger companies that offer multiple services, including those that may be used as substitute services for our products. Competition is already intense in these markets and, with the introduction of new technologies and market entrants, we expect competition to further intensify in the future. In addition, some of our competitors may make acquisitions, be acquired, or enter into strategic relationships to offer a more comprehensive service than we do. These combinations may make it more difficult for us to compete effectively. We expect these trends to continue as competitors attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions.
Demand for our services is sensitive to price. Many factors, including our marketing, customer acquisition and technology costs, commoditization of our products and services and our current and future competitors’ pricing and marketing strategies, can significantly affect our pricing strategies. There can be no assurance that we will not be forced to engage in price-cutting initiatives, or to increase our marketing and other expenses to attract and retain customers in response to competitive pressures, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, operating results and resources.
We will likely encounter significant, growing competition in our business from many sources, including portals and digital media retailers, search engines, social networking and consumer-sharing services companies,
 
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broadband media distribution platforms, technology suppliers, direct broadcast satellite television service companies and digital and traditional cable systems. Many of our present and likely future competitors have substantially greater financial, marketing, technological and other resources than we do. Some of these companies may even choose to offer services competitive with ours at no cost as a strategy to attract or retain customers of their other services. Technological and commercial developments may lead to the increasing commoditization of our products and services, including content delivery and storage, further increasing downward pressure on the prices we can charge. If we are unable to compete successfully with traditional and other emerging providers of competing services, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The effects of the
COVID-19
pandemic have materially affected how we and our customers are operating our businesses, and the duration and extent to which this will impact our future results of operations and overall financial performance remains uncertain.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus disease, or
COVID-19,
as a pandemic. The
COVID-19
pandemic, which has continued to spread and develop new variants in the two years since, and the related adverse public health developments, including orders to
shelter-in-place,
travel restrictions, and mandated business closures, have adversely affected workforces, organizations, customers, economies, and financial markets globally, leading to an economic downturn and increased market volatility. It has also disrupted the normal operations of many businesses, including ours.
In March 2020, we temporarily closed each of our global offices and required our employees to work remotely until the summer of 2021. We continued to operate with a remote workforce in 2021, while also carefully opening some of our offices to provide employees with the option of working from an office if they so chose. We continue to monitor and follow local requirements with respect to safety measures in each office location. We also suspended most of our company-related travel, shifted our annual customer conference, internal sales kickoff event, and partner events to virtual-only experiences, and have canceled our participation at other customer and industry events. We may deem it advisable to alter, postpone, or cancel our participation at customer, employee, or industry events in the future. These changes have disrupted, and may continue to disrupt, the way we operate our business.
Moreover, the conditions caused by the
COVID-19
pandemic and its aftermath can affect the rate of spending on software products and the demand for video to support virtual events. This could adversely affect our customers’ ability or willingness to purchase our offerings, delay prospective customers’ purchasing decisions, increase pressure for pricing discounts, lengthen payment terms, reduce the value or duration of their subscription contracts, increase customer attrition rates, or attend our events, all of which could adversely affect our future sales, operating results and overall financial performance.
Our operations have also been negatively affected by a range of external factors related to the
COVID-19
pandemic that are not within our control. For example, many cities, counties, states, and even countries have imposed or may impose a wide range of restrictions on the physical movement of our employees, partners and customers to limit the spread of
COVID-19,
including physical distancing, travel bans and restrictions, closure of
non-essential
business, quarantines, work-from-home directives and
shelter-in-place
orders. These measures have caused, and are continuing to cause, business slowdowns or shutdowns in affected areas, both regionally and worldwide. If the
COVID-19
pandemic has a substantial impact on the productivity of our employees and partners, or a continued substantial impact on the ability of our employees to execute responsibilities, or a continued and substantial impact on the ability of our customers to purchase our offerings, our results of operations and overall financial performance may be harmed.
The duration and extent of the impact from the
COVID-19
pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the severity and transmission rate of the virus (including its variants), the extent and effectiveness of containment actions, the disruption caused by such actions, and the
 
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impact of these and other factors on our employees, customers, partners and vendors. If we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively, our business will be harmed.
To the extent the
COVID-19
pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described herein.
Risks related to our operations
If we do not successfully manage the transition associated with the planned retirement of our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and the appointment of a new CEO, it could be viewed negatively by our customers and shareholders and could have an adverse impact on our business.    
Effective March 28, 2022, Jeff Ray will step down from his position as the Company’s CEO and as a member of the Board and Marc DeBevoise has been appointed in his stead. Mr. Ray will remain with the Company as an advisor, assisting with the leadership transition, until December 31, 2022. Leadership transitions can be inherently difficult to manage, and an inadequate transition of our CEO may cause disruption to our business, including to our relationships with customers, vendors and employees.
We depend on the experience and expertise of our executive officers, senior management team and key technical employees, and the loss of any key employee could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success depends upon the continued service of our executive officers, senior management team and key technical employees, as well as our ability to continue to attract and retain additional highly qualified personnel. Each of our executive officers, senior management team, key technical personnel and other employees could terminate his or her relationship with us at any time. The loss of any member of our senior management team or key personnel might significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives and could materially harm our business and our customer relationships. In addition, because of the nature of our business, the loss of any significant number of our existing engineering, project management and sales personnel could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in our business and operations, as well as organizational changes, have placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and infrastructure. If we fail to manage these changes effectively and successfully recruit additional highly-qualified employees, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service or address competitive challenges adequately.
Our business, headcount and operations have grown, both domestically and internationally, since our inception. In addition, we have seen organizational changes during that time, including the addition of several new members to our senior leadership team in the past several years. This growth and these organizational changes have placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our management, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. We anticipate further growth will be required to address increases in our product and service offerings and continued international expansion. Our success will depend in part upon the ability of our senior leadership team to manage Brightcove effectively. To do so, we must continue to recruit, hire, train, manage and integrate a significant number of qualified managers, technical personnel and employees in specialized roles within our company, including in technology, sales and marketing. If our new employees perform poorly, or if we are unsuccessful in recruiting, hiring, training, managing and integrating these new employees, or retaining these or our existing employees, our business may suffer.
In addition, to manage the expected continued growth of our business, headcount, operations and geographic expansion, we will need to continue to improve our information technology infrastructure, operational, financial and management systems and procedures. Our expected additional headcount and capital investments will increase our costs, which will make it more difficult for us to address any future revenue shortfalls by reducing
 
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expenses in the short term. If we fail to successfully manage our growth we will be unable to successfully execute our business plan, which could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Potential future acquisitions could be difficult to integrate, divert the attention of key personnel, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and impair our financial results.
As part of our business strategy, we may continue to consider acquisitions of companies, technologies and products that we believe could accelerate our ability to compete in our core markets or allow us to enter new markets. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, any of which could harm our business, including:
 
   
difficulties in integrating the technologies, products, operations and existing contracts of a target company and realizing the anticipated benefits of the combined businesses;
 
   
difficulties in integrating the personnel of a target company;
 
   
difficulties in supporting and transitioning customers, if any, of a target company;
 
   
diversion of financial and management resources from existing operations;
 
   
the price we pay or other resources that we devote may exceed the value we realize, or the value we could have realized if we had allocated the purchase price or other resources to another opportunity;
 
   
risks of entering new markets in which we have limited or no experience;
 
   
potential loss of key employees, customers and strategic alliances from either our current business or a target company’s business; and
 
   
inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition costs.
Acquisitions also frequently result in the recording of goodwill and other intangible assets which are subject to potential impairments in the future that could harm our financial results. In addition, if we finance acquisitions by issuing equity securities, our existing stockholders may be diluted. As a result, if we fail to properly evaluate acquisitions or investments, we may not achieve the anticipated benefits of any such acquisitions, and we may incur costs in excess of what we anticipate. The failure to successfully evaluate and execute acquisitions or investments or otherwise adequately address these risks could materially harm our business and financial results.
We may experience delays in product and service development, including delays beyond our control, which could prevent us from achieving our growth objectives and hurt our business.
Many of the problems, delays and expenses we may encounter may be beyond our control. Such problems may include, but are not limited to, problems related to the technical development of our products and services, problems with the infrastructure for the distribution and delivery of online media, including those from third party providers on which we rely, the competitive environment in which we operate, marketing problems, consumer acceptance and costs and expenses that may exceed current estimates. Problems, delays or expenses in any of these areas could have a negative impact on our business, financial conditions or results of operations.
Delays in the timely design, development, deployment and commercial operation of our product and service offerings, and consequently the achievement of our revenue targets and positive cash flow, could result from a variety of causes, including many causes that are beyond our control. Such delays include, but are not limited to, delays in the integration of new offers into our existing offering, changes to our products and services made to correct or enhance their features, performance or marketability or in response to regulatory developments or otherwise, delays encountered in the development, integration or testing of our products and services and the infrastructure for the distribution and delivery of online media and other systems, unsuccessful commercial launches of new products and services, delays in our ability to obtain financing, insufficient or ineffective marketing efforts and slower-than-anticipated consumer acceptance of our products. Delays in any of these matters could hinder or prevent our achievement of our growth objectives and hurt our business.
 
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Risks related to our intellectual property and third-parties
Our business may be adversely affected by third-party claims, including by governmental bodies, regarding the content and advertising distributed through our service.
We rely on our customers to secure the rights to redistribute content over the Internet, and we do not screen the content that is distributed through our service. There is no assurance that our customers have licensed all rights necessary for distribution, including Internet distribution. Other parties may claim certain rights in the content of our customers.
In the event that our customers do not have the necessary distribution rights related to content, we may be required to cease distributing such content, or we may be subject to lawsuits and claims of damages for infringement of such rights. If these claims arise with frequency, the likelihood of our business being adversely affected would rise significantly. In some cases, we may have rights to indemnification or claims against our customers if they do not have appropriate distribution rights related to specific content items, however there is no assurance that we would be successful in any such claim.
We operate an “open” publishing platform and do not screen the content that is distributed through our service. Content may be distributed through our platform that is illegal or unlawful under international, federal, state or local laws or the laws of other countries. In the event that our customers distribute content that is deemed illegal, we would be required to cease distributing such content. We may face lawsuits, claims or even criminal charges for such distribution, and we may be subject to civil, regulatory or criminal sanctions and damages for such distribution. Any such claims or investigations could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We could incur substantial costs as a result of any claim of infringement of another party’s intellectual property rights.
In recent years, there has been significant litigation in the United States involving patents and other intellectual property rights. Companies providing Internet-related products and services are increasingly bringing and becoming subject to suits alleging infringement of proprietary rights, particularly patent rights. These risks have been amplified by the increase in third parties whose sole or primary business is to assert such claims, some of whom have sent letters to and/or filed suit alleging infringement against some of our customers. From time to time, third parties claim that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. We could incur substantial costs in prosecuting or defending any intellectual property litigation. Additionally, the defense or prosecution of claims could be time-consuming, and could divert our management’s attention away from the execution of our business plan.
Moreover, any settlement or adverse judgment resulting from a claim could require us to pay substantial amounts or obtain a license to continue to use the technology that is the subject of the claim, or otherwise restrict or prohibit our use of the technology. There can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain a license from the third party asserting the claim on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, that we would be able to develop alternative technology on a timely basis, if at all, or that we would be able to obtain a license to use a suitable alternative technology to permit us to continue offering, and our customers to continue using, our affected product or service. In addition, we may be required to indemnify our customers for third-party intellectual property infringement claims, which would increase the cost to us. An adverse determination could also prevent us from offering our products or services to others. Infringement claims asserted against us may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our agreements with customers often include contractual obligations to indemnify them against claims that our products infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties. The results of any intellectual property
 
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litigation to which we might become a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, may force us to do one or more of the following:
 
   
cease selling or using products or services that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
 
   
make substantial payments for costs or damages;
 
   
obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms, to sell or use the relevant technology; or
 
   
redesign those products or services to avoid infringement.
If we are required to make substantial payments or undertake any of the other actions noted above as a result of any intellectual property infringement claims against us or any obligation to indemnify our customers for such claims, such payments or costs could have a material adverse effect upon our business and financial results.
Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property could substantially harm our business and operating results.
Because our business depends substantially on our intellectual property, the protection of our intellectual property rights is important to the success of our business. We rely upon a combination of trademark, patent, trade secret and copyright law and contractual restrictions to protect our intellectual property. These afford only limited protection. Despite our efforts to protect our property rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our products, service, software and functionality or obtain and use information that we consider proprietary. Moreover, policing our proprietary rights is difficult and may not always be effective. In addition, we may need to enforce our rights under the laws of countries that do not protect proprietary rights to as great an extent as do the laws of the United States.
Litigation or proceedings before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or other governmental authorities and administrative bodies in the United States and abroad may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our patent rights, trade secrets, trademarks and domain names, and to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Such litigation or proceedings may be very costly and impact our financial performance. We may also incur substantial costs defending against frivolous litigation or be asked to indemnify our customers against the same. Our efforts to enforce or protect our proprietary rights may prove to be ineffective and could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could substantially harm our operating results.
Our exposure to risks associated with the use of intellectual property may increase as a result of acquisitions, as we have less opportunity to have visibility into the development process with respect to acquired technology or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks. Third parties may make infringement and similar or related claims after we have acquired technology that had not been asserted prior to our acquisition.
Confidentiality agreements with employees and others may not adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.
We have devoted substantial resources to the development of our technology, business operations and business plans. In order to protect our trade secrets and proprietary information, we rely in significant part on confidentiality agreements with our employees, licensees, independent contractors, advisers and customers. These agreements may not be effective to prevent disclosure of confidential information, including trade secrets, and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, others may independently discover trade secrets and proprietary information, and in such cases we would not be able to assert trade secret rights against such parties. To the extent that our employees and others with whom we do business use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related or resulting
know-how
and inventions. Laws regarding trade secret rights in certain
 
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markets in which we operate may afford little or no protection to our trade secrets. The loss of trade secret protection could make it easier for third parties to compete with our products by copying functionality. In addition, any changes in, or unexpected interpretations of, the trade secret and other intellectual property laws in any country in which we operate may compromise our ability to enforce our trade secret and intellectual property rights. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.
Our use of “open source” software could negatively affect our ability to sell our services and subject us to possible litigation.
A portion of the technology licensed by us incorporates “open source” software, and we may incorporate or use open source software in the future. Such open source software is generally licensed by its authors or other third parties under open source licenses. If we fail to comply with these licenses, we may be subject to certain conditions, including requirements that we offer our services that incorporate the open source software for no cost, that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating or using the open source software and that we license such modifications or alterations under the terms of the particular open source license. If an author or other third party that distributes such open source software were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our services that contained the open source software and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of some of our services.
There is no assurance that the current cost of Internet connectivity and network access will not rise with the increasing popularity of online media services.
We rely on third-party service providers for our principal connections to the Internet and network access, and to deliver media to consumers. As demand for online media increases, there can be no assurance that Internet and network service providers will continue to price their network access services on reasonable terms. The distribution of online media requires delivery of digital content files and providers of network access and distribution may change their business models and increase their prices significantly, which could slow the widespread adoption of such services. In order for our services to be successful, there must be a reasonable price model in place to allow for the continuous distribution of digital media files. We have limited or no control over the extent to which any of these circumstances may occur, and if network access or distribution prices rise, our business, financial condition and results of operations would likely be adversely affected.
Failure of our infrastructure for the distribution and delivery of online media could adversely affect our business.
Our success as a business depends, in large part, on our ability to provide a consistently high-quality digital experience to consumers via our relationships and infrastructure for the distribution and delivery of online media generally. There is no guarantee that our relationships and infrastructure will not experience problems or other performance issues, which could seriously impair the quality and reliability of our delivery of digital media to end users. For example, we primarily use three content delivery networks, or CDNs, to deliver content to end users. If one or more of these CDNs were to experience sustained technical failures, it could cause delays in our service and we could lose customers. If we do not accurately predict our infrastructure capacity requirements, our customers could experience service outages or service degradation that may subject us to financial penalties and liabilities and result in customer losses. In the past we have, on limited occasions, suffered temporary interruptions of certain aspects of our service, including our customers’ ability to upload new content into our system, our customers’ ability to access administrative control of their accounts, and our ability to deliver content to end users in certain geographic locations. These service interruptions were the results of human error, hardware and software failures or failures of third-party networks. On a limited number of occasions, these
 
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service interruptions have required us to provide service credits to customers. We cannot guarantee that service interruptions will not occur again or predict the duration of interruptions of our service or the impact of such interruptions on our customers. Failures and interruptions of our service may impact our reputation, result in our payment of compensation or service credits to our customers, result in loss of customers and adversely affect our financial results and ability to grow our business. In addition, if AWS or our hosting infrastructure capacity fails to keep pace with increased sales or if our delivery capabilities fail, customers may experience delays as we seek to obtain additional capacity or enable alternative delivery capability, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our revenue growth.
We may have difficulty scaling and adapting our existing infrastructure to accommodate increased traffic and storage, technology advances or customer requirements.
In the future, advances in technology, increases in traffic and storage, and new customer requirements may require us to change our infrastructure, expand our infrastructure or replace our infrastructure entirely. Scaling and adapting our infrastructure is likely to be complex and require additional technical expertise. If we are required to make any changes to our infrastructure, we may incur substantial costs and experience delays or interruptions in our service. These delays or interruptions may cause customers and partners to become dissatisfied with our service and move to competing service providers. Our failure to accommodate increased traffic and storage, increased costs, inefficiencies or failures to adapt to new technologies or customer requirements and the associated adjustments to our infrastructure could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on software and services licensed from other parties. The loss of software or services from third parties could increase our costs and limit the features available in our products and services.
Components of our service and product offerings include various types of software and services licensed from unaffiliated parties. If any of the software or services we license from others or functional equivalents thereof were either no longer available to us or no longer offered on commercially reasonable terms, we would be required to either redesign our services and products to function with software or services available from other parties or develop these components ourselves. In either case, the transition to a new service provider or an internally-developed solution could result in increased costs and could result in delays in our product launches and the release of new service and product offerings. Furthermore, we might be forced to temporarily limit the features available in our current or future products and services. If we fail to maintain or renegotiate any of these software or service licenses, we could face significant delays and diversion of resources in attempting to license and integrate functional equivalents.
If our software products contain serious errors or defects, then we may lose revenue and market acceptance and may incur costs to defend or settle claims.
Complex software applications such as ours often contain errors or defects, particularly when first introduced or when new versions or enhancements are released. Despite internal testing and testing by our customers, our current and future products may contain serious defects, which could result in lost revenue, lost customers, slower growth or a delay in market acceptance.
Since our customers use our products for critical business applications, errors, defects or other performance problems could result in damage to our customers. They could seek significant compensation from us for the losses they suffer. Although our customer agreements typically contain provisions designed to limit our exposure to claims, existing or future laws or unfavorable judicial decisions could negate these limitations. Even if not successful, a claim brought against us would likely be time-consuming and costly and could seriously damage our reputation in the marketplace, making it harder for us to sell our products.
 
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Our internal computer systems, or those of our strategic partners or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer from the unauthorized disclosure of data, unauthorized access to the service and misuse of the service, which could result in a material disruption of our product development programs and our business.
Our internal computer systems and those of our current and any future strategic collaborators, vendors, and other contractors or consultants are vulnerable to damage from cyber-attacks, computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, cybersecurity threats, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. Cyber incidents have been increasing in sophistication and frequency and can include third parties gaining access to employee or customer data using stolen or inferred credentials, computer malware, viruses, spamming, phishing attacks, ransomware, card skimming code, and other deliberate attacks and attempts to gain unauthorized access. Because the techniques used by computer programmers who may attempt to penetrate and sabotage our network security or our website change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. If an actual or perceived security breach occurs, the market perception of our security measures could be harmed and we could lose sales and customers. Any significant violations of data privacy or unauthorized disclosure of information could result in the loss of business, litigation and regulatory investigations and penalties that could damage our reputation and adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. Moreover, if a security breach occurs with respect to another software as a service, or SaaS, provider, our customers and potential customers may lose trust in the security of the SaaS business model generally, which could adversely impact our ability to retain existing customers or attract new ones.
It is also possible that unauthorized access to customer data may be obtained through inadequate use of security controls by customers, suppliers or other vendors.
If any such computer system failure, accident or security breach were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations, whether due to a loss of our trade secrets or other proprietary information or other disruptions. These cyber-attacks could be carried out by threat actors of all types (including but not limited to nation states, organized crime, other criminal enterprises, individual actors and/or advanced persistent threat groups). In addition, we may experience intrusions on our physical premises by any of these threat actors.
Any security breaches, unauthorized access, unauthorized usage, virus or similar breach or disruption could result in loss of confidential information, personal data and customer content, damage to our reputation, early termination of our contracts, litigation, regulatory investigations, increased costs or other liabilities. If our security measures, or those of our partners or service providers, are breached as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise and, as a result, someone obtains unauthorized access to confidential information, personal data or customer content, our reputation will be damaged, our business may suffer or we could incur significant liability. If the measures we have put in place to limit or restrict access to and use of functionality, usage entitlements and support for customers or prospective customers are breached, circumvented or ineffective as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise and, as a result, someone obtains unauthorized access to and use of functionality, usage entitlements and support, our business may suffer or we could incur significant liability and/or costs.
There can be no assurance that any limitations of liability provisions in our contracts for a security breach would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from any such liabilities or damages with respect to any particular claim. We also cannot be sure that our existing general liability insurance coverage and coverage for errors or omissions will continue to be available on acceptable terms or will be available in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims, or that the insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or
co-insurance
requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
 
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We use a data center and cloud computing services facilities to deliver our services. Any disruption of service at these facilities could harm our business.
We manage our services and serve all of our customers from cloud computing services facilities, such as Amazon Web Services, as well as one physical data center facility. While we control the actual computer and storage systems upon which our software runs, and deploy them to these facilities, we do not control the operation or availability of these facilities.
The owners of these facilities have no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew these agreements on commercially reasonable terms, we may be required to transfer to new facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so.
Any changes in third-party service levels at these facilities or any errors, defects, disruptions or other performance problems at or related to these facilities that affect our services could harm our reputation and may damage our customers’ businesses. Interruptions in our services might reduce our revenue, cause us to issue credits to customers, subject us to potential liability, and cause customers to terminate their subscriptions or harm our renewal rates.
These facilities are vulnerable to damage or service interruption resulting from human error, intentional bad acts, security breaches, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, war, terrorist attacks, power losses, hardware failures, systems failures, telecommunications failures, global health emergencies such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, and similar events. For example, on September 18, 2014, we suffered a service disruption resulting from a distributed
denial-of-service
attack at third-party data center facilities used by us. By September 20, 2014, we had restored the services impacted by the attack. We contacted federal law enforcement authorities regarding the
denial-of-service
attack and cooperated with them. We also conducted an assessment of our internet service providers and data center providers, potential future vulnerability to malicious activity, and the sufficiency of our infrastructure to withstand and recover rapidly from such attacks. While this matter did not have a material adverse effect on our operating results, there can be no assurance that such incidents will not occur again, and they could occur more frequently and on a more significant scale. The occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism, or vandalism or other misconduct, or a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice or other unanticipated problems could result in lengthy interruptions in our services.
Risks related to our finances
Fluctuations in the exchange rate of foreign currencies could result in currency translation losses.
We currently have foreign sales denominated in Australian dollars, British pounds sterling, Euros, Japanese yen and New Zealand dollars and may, in the future, have sales denominated in the currencies of additional countries in which we establish or have established sales offices. In addition, we incur a portion of our operating expenses in British pounds sterling, Mexican Pesos, Euros, Japanese yen and, to a lesser extent, other foreign currencies. Any fluctuation in the exchange rate of these foreign currencies may negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results. Global economic events, such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, have and may continue to significantly impact local economies and the foreign exchange markets, which may increase the risks associated with sales denominated in foreign currencies. We have not previously engaged in foreign currency hedging. If we decide to hedge our foreign currency exposure, we may not be able to hedge effectively due to lack of experience, unreasonable costs or illiquid markets.
Failure of our customers to pay the amounts owed to us, or to pay such amounts in a timely manner, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
If any of our significant customers have insufficient liquidity, we could encounter significant delays or defaults in payments owed to us by such customers, and we may need to extend our payment terms or restructure
 
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the receivables owed to us, which could have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition, including impacting the timing of revenue recognition. Any deterioration in the financial condition of our customers will increase the risk of uncollectible receivables. Global economic uncertainty, such as the economic instability and market volatility caused by the global
COVID-19
pandemic, could also affect our customers’ ability to pay our receivables in a timely manner or at all or result in customers going into bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings, which could also affect our ability to collect our receivables.
We may be required to collect sales and use taxes on the services we sell in additional jurisdictions in the future, which may decrease sales, and we may be subject to liability for sales and use taxes and related interest and penalties on prior sales.
State and local taxing jurisdictions have differing rules and regulations governing sales and use taxes and these rules and regulations are subject to varying interpretations that may change over time. On June 21, 2018, the United States Supreme Court ruled in
South Dakota v. Wayfair
that states can impose sales and use taxes on transactions made with
out-of-state
sellers. Following this ruling, certain states have enforced tax laws requiring taxation of
out-of-state
purchases. We have performed an assessment of sales taxes owed under the new court ruling, determined that we need to remit sales taxes to certain states, and we have remitted such taxes. There is a risk that states which do not currently impose taxes on
out-of-state
purchases will do so in the future. We cannot assure you that we will not be subject to sales and use taxes or related penalties for past sales in states where we presently believe sales and use taxes are not due. We reserve estimated sales and use taxes in our financial statements but we cannot be certain that we have made sufficient reserves to cover all taxes that might be assessed.
If one or more taxing authorities determine that taxes should have, but have not, been paid with respect to our services, we may be liable for past taxes in addition to being required to collect sales or similar taxes in respect of our services going forward. Liability for past taxes may also include substantial interest and penalty charges. Our client contracts typically provide that our clients must pay all applicable sales and similar taxes. Nevertheless, clients may be reluctant to pay back taxes and may refuse responsibility for interest or penalties associated with those taxes or we may determine that it would not be feasible to seek reimbursement. If we are required to collect and pay back taxes and the associated interest and penalties and if our clients do not reimburse us for all or a portion of these amounts, we will incur unplanned expenses that may be substantial. Moreover, imposition of such taxes on our services going forward will effectively increase the cost of such services to our clients and may adversely affect our ability to retain existing clients or to gain new clients in the areas in which such taxes are imposed.
Risks related to governmental regulation
Government and industry regulation of the Internet is evolving and could directly restrict our business or indirectly affect our business by limiting the growth of our markets. Unfavorable changes in government regulation or our failure to comply with regulations could harm our business and operating results.
Federal, state and foreign governments and agencies have adopted and could in the future adopt regulations covering issues such as user privacy, content, and taxation of products and services. Government regulations could limit the market for our products and services or impose burdensome requirements that render our business unprofitable. Our products enable our customers to collect, manage and store a wide range of data. The United States and various state governments have adopted or proposed limitations on the collection, distribution and use of personal information. Several foreign jurisdictions, including the European Union and the United Kingdom, have adopted legislation (including directives or regulations) that increase or change the requirements governing data collection and storage in these jurisdictions. If our privacy or data security measures fail to comply with current or future laws and regulations, we may be subject to litigation, regulatory investigations or other liabilities, or our customers may terminate their relationships with us.
In addition, although many regulations might not apply to our business directly, we expect that laws regulating the solicitation, collection or processing of personal and consumer information could affect our
 
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customers’ ability to use and share data, potentially reducing demand for our services. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 and the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679, the California Consumer Privacy Act, along with other similar laws and regulations prohibit certain types of information and content from being transmitted over the Internet. The scope of these types of prohibitions in jurisdictions around the world and the liability associated with a violation are evolving. In addition, although substantial portions of the Communications Decency Act were held to be unconstitutional, we cannot be certain that similar legislation will not be enacted and upheld in the future. Legislation like the Telecommunications Act and the Communications Decency Act could dampen the growth in web usage and decrease its acceptance as a medium of communications and commerce. Moreover, if future laws and regulations limit our customers’ ability to use and share consumer data or our ability to store, process and share data with our customers over the Internet, demand for our products could decrease, our costs could increase, and our results of operations and financial condition could be harmed.
In addition, taxation of services provided over the Internet or other charges imposed by government agencies or by private organizations for accessing the Internet may be imposed. Any regulation imposing greater fees for Internet use or restricting information exchange over the Internet could result in a decline in the use of the Internet and the viability of Internet-based services, which could harm our business and operating results.
Our
business
is
subject
to
a
variety
of U.S. federal and state, as well as international
laws
and
regulations
,
including
those
regarding
privacy
,
data
protection
and
information
security
,
and
our
customers
may
be
subject
to
regulations
related
to
the
handling
and
transfer
of
certain
types
of
personal,
sensitive
,
or
confidential
information
.
Any
failure
to
comply
with
applicable
laws
and
regulations
would
harm
our
business
,
results
of
operations
and
financial
condition
.
We and our customers may be subject to privacy and data protection-related laws and regulations that impose obligations in connection with the collection, use, storage, transfer, dissemination, security, and/or other processing (“Processing”) of personally identifiable information (such personally identifiable information collectively with all information defined or described by applicable law as “personal data,” “personal information,” “PII” or any similar term, “Personally Identifiable Information”) or other sensitive data. Existing U.S. federal and various state and foreign privacy and data protection-related laws and regulations are evolving and subject to potentially differing interpretations, and various legislative and regulatory bodies may expand current or enact new laws and regulations regarding privacy and data protection-related matters. International jurisdictions in which we have customers or employees have established data security and privacy frameworks with which we or our customers must comply. In addition, our business may be impacted by new regulations and guidance over machine learning and automated processing. In the United States, certain state laws may be more stringent or broader in scope, or offer greater individual rights, with respect to sensitive and personal information than federal or other state laws, and such laws may differ from each other, which may complicate compliance efforts. New laws, amendments to or
re-interpretations
of existing laws and regulations, rules of self-regulatory bodies, industry standards and contractual obligations may impact our business and practices, and we may be required to expend significant resources to adapt to these changes, or stop offering our products in certain countries. These developments could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) is of the most concern in this regard. The GDPR, effective since May 25, 2018, imposes strict regulations and establishes a series of requirements regarding the collection, transfer, storage and processing of personal data. The GDPR has extra-territorial application and applies where a company, based outside the European Union, processes personal data of individuals based in the European Union as a result of offering goods or services to individuals based in the EU and/or monitoring their behavior. The GDPR imposes strict requirements on controllers and processors of personal data, including special protections for data subjects residing in the EU. The GDPR grants individuals the opportunity to object to the processing of their personal data, allows them to exercise certain data subject requests, including to request deletion of personal data in certain circumstances, and provides the individual with an express right to seek legal recourse in the event the individual believes his or her rights have been violated. Further, the GDPR imposes
 
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strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the European Union to the United States or other regions that have not been deemed to offer “adequate” privacy protections. The GDPR enhances data protection obligations for businesses and provides direct legal obligations for service providers processing personal data on behalf of customers, including with respect to cooperation with European data protection authorities, implementation of security measures and keeping records of personal data processing activities. Moreover, the GDPR requirements apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, including employee information. Noncompliance with the GDPR can trigger steep fines of up to €20 million or 4% of global annual revenues, whichever is higher. In addition, further to the UK’s exit from the EU on January 31, 2020, the GDPR ceased to apply in the UK at the end of the transition period on December 31, 2020. However, as of January 1, 2021, the UK’s European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 incorporated the GDPR (as it existed on December 31, 2020 but subject to certain UK specific amendments) into UK law, referred to as the UK GDPR. The UK GDPR and the UK Data Protection Act 2018 set out the UK’s data protection regime, which is independent from but aligned to the EU’s data protection regime.
Non-compliance
with the UK GDPR may result in monetary penalties of up to £17.5 million or 4% of worldwide revenue, whichever is higher. Although the UK is regarded as a third country under the EU’s GDPR, the European Commission (“EC”) has now issued a decision recognizing the UK as providing adequate protection under the EU GDPR and, therefore, transfers of personal data originating in the EU to the UK remain unrestricted. Like the EU GDPR, the UK GDPR restricts personal data transfers outside the UK to countries not regarded by the UK as providing adequate protection. The UK government has confirmed that personal data transfers from the UK to the EEA remain free flowing.
In addition to the GDPR, the European Union is also in the process of replacing the
e-Privacy
Directive (2002/58/EC) with a new set of rules taking the form of the ePrivacy Regulation, which will be directly implemented in the laws of each European member state, without the need for further enactment. Certain jurisdictions are actively applying the ePrivacy Directive to enforce cookie consent and consent requirements generally under the GDPR. Originally planned to be adopted and implemented at the same time as the GDPR, the ePrivacy Regulation is still going through the European legislative process. As of November 2021, the Council of the European Union and European Parliament are still in negotiations of a final draft for vote. Any passed Regulation would go into effect two years after it is passed. An update is expected in 2022. The aim is for the Draft Regulation to be in force some time in 2023. Preparing for and complying with the GDPR and the ePrivacy Regulation (if and when it becomes effective) has required and will continue to require us to incur substantial operational costs and may require us to change our business practices. Despite our efforts to bring practices into compliance with the GDPR and before the effective date of the ePrivacy Regulation, we may not be successful either due to internal or external factors such as resource allocation limitations and in inconsistency in interpretation of the law across EU regulatory bodies.
Non-compliance
could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, customers, data subjects, consumer associations or others.
The
EU-U.S.
and the
Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield frameworks
allowed U.S. companies that self-certify to the U.S. Department of Commerce and publicly commit to comply with specified requirements to import personal data from the EU and Switzerland. Recently, the Court of Justice of the EU ruled that the
EU-U.S. Privacy
Shield is an invalid transfer mechanism, but upheld Standard Contractual Clauses as a valid transfer mechanism, provided they meet certain requirements. To enable the transfer of personal data outside of the EEA or the UK, adequate safeguards must be implemented in compliance with European and UK data protection laws. On June 4, 2021, the EC issued new forms of standard contractual clauses for data transfers from controllers or processors in the EU/EEA (or otherwise subject to the GDPR) to controllers or processors established outside the EU/EEA (and not subject to the GDPR). The new standard contractual clauses replace the standard contractual clauses that were adopted previously under the EU Data Protection Directive. The UK is not subject to the EC’s new standard contractual clauses but has published a draft version of a
UK-specific
transfer mechanism, which, once finalized, will enable transfers from the UK. We will be required to implement these new safeguards when conducting restricted data transfers under the EU and UK GDPR and doing so will require significant effort and cost.
The EU’s data protection landscape is evolving with respect to transfers to
US-based
service providers (processors) or those using
US-based
cloud service providers to process information collected in the EU,
 
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particularly after the invalidation of the Privacy Shield and creation of new standard contractual clauses. While we have taken steps to mitigate the impact, such as implementing the new standard contractual clauses and creating a risk assessment for transfers of personal information from our customers to the US, recent decisions indicate that the longevity of these mechanisms remains uncertain and may continue to evolve. Further action in this area could increase the risk of continued transfers or create costs for engaging a
EU-based
processor or cloud-service provider. Compliance obligations could cause us to incur costs or negatively affect the operations of our products and services in ways that harm our business.
In the United States, many state legislatures have adopted or are considering legislation that regulates how businesses operate online, including measures relating to privacy. California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or “CCPA,” which creates new individual privacy rights for California consumers (as defined in the law) and places increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal data of consumers or households. The CCPA, effective since January 1, 2020, requires covered businesses, such as our company, to provide certain disclosures to consumers about its data collection, use and sharing practices, and to provide affected California residents with ways to
opt-out
of certain sales or transfers of personal information. The California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), an amendment expanding the rights of the CCPA to other types of California residents goes into effect in 2023, creating a separate agency charged with enforcement and promulgating compliance guidelines. No regulations have been issued and the CPRA leaves many provisions up to the decision of this agency, making compliance efforts more uncertain. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that result in the loss of personal information. This private right of action may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated with, data breach litigation. There continues to be uncertainty surrounding the enforcement and implementation of the CCPA exemplifying the vulnerability of our business to the evolving regulatory environment related to personal data and protected information. These penalties have been unchanged by the CPRA, but businesses no longer have a guaranteed 30-day cure period.
The existence of privacy laws in different states in the United States will make our compliance obligations more complex and costly and may increase the likelihood that we may be subject to enforcement actions or otherwise incur liability for noncompliance and require additional investment of resources in compliance programs, and/or changes in business practices and policies.
Current trends show those bills are very similar to obligations imposed by either the CCPA or GDPR, which makes our ability to adapt of current compliance programs to future privacy laws easier. However, even small deviations in definition could create compliance complexity for a business that relies heavily on device-based information.
With respect to all of the foregoing, any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with U.S. federal or state, EU or other foreign privacy or data security laws, policies, industry standards or legal obligations, or any security incident that results in the unauthorized Processing of Personally Identifiable Information or other customer data may result in governmental investigations, inquiries, enforcement actions and prosecutions, private litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity. Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements will comply with applicable information privacy laws may involve substantial costs. Various jurisdictions around the world continue to propose new laws that regulate the privacy and/or security of certain types of personal data. Complying with these laws, if enacted, would require significant resources and leave us vulnerable to possible fines and penalties if we are unable to comply. It is possible that governmental and enforcement authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face penalties, including, without limitation, civil, criminal, and administrative penalties, damages, fines, individual imprisonment, or restructuring of our operations.
 
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Risk related to owning our common stock
Our stock price has been volatile and is likely to be volatile in the future.
The market price of our common stock has been and is likely to be highly volatile and could be subject to significant fluctuations in response to, among other things, the risk factors described in this report and other factors beyond our control. Market prices for securities of early stage companies have historically been particularly volatile. Some, but not all, of the factors that may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate include:
 
   
fluctuations in our quarterly or annual financial results or the quarterly or annual financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us or relevant for our business;
 
   
changes in estimates of our financial results or recommendations by securities analysts;
 
   
failure of our products to achieve or maintain market acceptance;
 
   
changes in market valuations of similar or relevant companies;
 
   
success of competitive service offerings or technologies;
 
   
changes in our capital structure, such as the issuance of securities or the incurrence of debt;
 
   
announcements by us or by our competitors of significant services, contracts, acquisitions or strategic alliances;
 
   
regulatory developments in the United States, foreign countries, or both;
 
   
market volatility resulting from the
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
litigation;
 
   
additions or departures of key personnel;
 
   
investors’ general perceptions; and
 
   
changes in general economic, industry or market conditions.
In addition, if the market for technology stocks, or the stock market in general, experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of our common stock could decline for reasons unrelated to our business, financial condition, or results of operations. If any of the foregoing occurs, it could cause our stock price to fall and may expose us to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to management.
Our business and operations could be adversely affected if we are subject to stockholder activism, which could cause us to incur significant expense and impact the market price of our common stock.
In recent years, proxy contests and other forms of stockholder activism have been directed against numerous public companies. Stockholder activism, including potential proxy contests, could result in substantial costs and divert the attention of our management and our board of directors and resources from our business. Activist campaigns can create perceived uncertainties as to our future direction, strategy or leadership and may result in the loss of potential business opportunities and harm our ability to attract new customers, employees and investors. In addition, we may be required to incur significant legal fees and other expenses related to any activist stockholder matters. Further, the market price of our common stock could be subject to significant fluctuation or otherwise be adversely affected by the events, risks, and uncertainties of any stockholder activism.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish, or cease publishing, research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock could be influenced by research and reports that industry or security analysts may publish about us, our business, our market or our competitors. If any of the analysts who
 
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may cover us adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, our stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
We do not expect to declare any dividends in the foreseeable future.
We do not anticipate declaring any dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. Consequently, investors may need to rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment. Investors seeking dividends should not purchase our common stock.
We may be unable to meet our future capital requirements, which could limit our ability to grow.
We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital and capital expenditure needs over at least the next 12 months. We may, however, need, or could elect to seek, additional funding at any time. To the extent that existing resources are insufficient to fund our business operations, our future activities for the expansion of our service and our product offerings, developing and sustaining our relationships and infrastructure for the distribution and delivery of digital media online, marketing, and supporting our office facilities, we may need to raise additional funds through equity or debt financing. Additional funds may not be available on terms favorable to us or our stockholders. Furthermore, if we issue equity securities, our stockholders may experience additional dilution or the new equity securities may have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of our existing classes of stock. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to develop or enhance our products, take advantage of future opportunities or respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated requirements.
Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in our failure to accurately report our financial results. Any inability to report and file our financial results accurately and timely could harm our business and adversely impact investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.
We are required to evaluate our internal control over financial reporting in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment includes the disclosure of any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting identified by our management, as well as our independent registered public accounting firm’s attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting. During the evaluation and testing process, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and Delaware law, contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult or discouraging an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors. Our corporate governance documents include provisions:
 
   
authorizing blank check preferred stock, which could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend, and other rights superior to our common stock;
 
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limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;
 
   
limiting the ability of our stockholders to call and bring business before special meetings and to take action by written consent in lieu of a meeting;
 
   
requiring advance notice of stockholder proposals for business to be conducted at meetings of our stockholders and for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors;
 
   
controlling the procedures for the conduct and scheduling of board of directors and stockholder meetings;
 
   
providing our board of directors with the express power to postpone previously scheduled annual meetings and to cancel previously scheduled special meetings;
 
   
establishing a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board are selected at one time;
 
   
limiting the determination of the number of directors on our board of directors and the filling of vacancies or newly created seats on the board to our board of directors then in office; and
 
   
providing that directors may be removed by stockholders only for cause.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay hostile takeovers and changes in control of our company or changes in our management.
As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our outstanding common stock. Any provision of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
We record substantial expenses related to our issuance of equity awards that may have a material adverse impact on our operating results for the foreseeable future.
We expect our stock-based compensation expenses will continue to be significant in future periods, which will have an adverse impact on our operating results. The model used by us to value stock options requires the input of subjective assumptions, including the price volatility of the option’s underlying stock, the expected life of the options and the risk-free interest rate. This model does not include RSUs. If facts and circumstances change and we employ different assumptions for estimating stock-based compensation expense in future periods, or if we decide to use a different valuation model, the future period expenses may differ significantly from what we have recorded in the current period and could materially affect the fair value estimate of stock-based payments, our operating income, net income and net income per share.
 
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
 
Item 2.
Properties
Our corporate headquarters is located at 290 Congress Street in Boston, Massachusetts. On April 30, 2021, we entered into a partial termination of the office lease, reducing the office space to 40,753 square feet. The remaining 290 Congress Street office lease terminates on March 31, 2022. In connection with the office lease, the Company entered into a letter of credit in the amount of $2.4 million.
 
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On November 23, 2021, we entered into a new office lease agreement to relocate our corporate headquarters to 281 Summer Street in Boston, Massachusetts. Under the terms of the new office lease agreement, we will occupy approximately 40,000 square feet. The initial term of the lease is for ten years. In connection with the office lease, the Company provided a security deposit, in the form of a letter of credit, in the amount of $823,998 in January 2022. This letter of credit will be auto-renewed annually, unless a 60 day notice is received from the landlord. An automatic extension can only be implemented through November 30, 2032. This letter of credit is irrevocable and does not have a cash requirement other than the amount already set forth. In the event of a default, the landlord must provide written notice of default before drawing from the letter of credit as a security deposit, or to remedy the amount owed.
We have sales and marketing offices in Boston, Massachusetts; London, England; Tokyo, Japan; Sydney, Australia; Seoul, South Korea; Mumbai, India; and Singapore. Our offices in Chennai, India, Guadalajara, Mexico, Funchal, Portugal and Covilha, Portugal are primarily used for research and development. We believe our facilities are adequate for our current needs.
 
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
The Company, from time to time, is party to litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. Management does not believe that the outcome of these claims will have a material adverse effect on the consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows of the Company based on the status of proceedings at this time.
 
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
 
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PART II
 
Item 5.
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock has been traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “BCOV” since our initial public offering on February 17, 2012. Prior to this time, there was no public market for our common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain any cash flow to finance the growth and development of our business, and we do not expect to pay any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Payment of future dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in current or future financing instruments and other factors our board of directors deems relevant.
Stockholders
As of February 14, 2022, there were approximately 83 holders of record of our common stock (not including beneficial holders of stock held in street name).
Stock Performance Graph
The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2021, with the cumulative total return of (a) the NASDAQ Computer & Data Processing Index and (b) the NASDAQ Composite Index, over the same period. This graph assumes the investment of $100 on January 1, 2017 in our common stock, the NASDAQ Computer & Data Processing Index and the NASDAQ Composite Index and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The graph assumes our closing sales price on December 30, 2016 of $8.05 per share as the initial value of our common stock.
 
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The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock. Information used in the graph was obtained from the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC, a financial data provider and a source believed to be reliable. The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC is not responsible for any errors or omissions in such information.
 
 
   
1/1/2017
   
12/31/2017
   
12/31/2018
   
12/31/2019
   
12/31/2020
   
12/31/2021
 
Brightcove Inc.
    100.0       88.2       87.5       108.0       228.6       127.0  
NASDAQ Composite Index
    100.0       128.2       123.3       166.7       239.4       290.6  
NASDAQ Computer & Data Processing Index
    100.0       138.8       133.7       200.9       301.4       415.5  
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer or Affiliated Purchasers
There were no repurchases of shares of common stock made during the year ended December 31, 2021.
 
Item 6.
Selected Consolidated Financial Data
Not applicable.
 
Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on
Form 10-K.
The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form
10-K,
particularly in “Risk Factors.”
Overview
We are a leading global provider of cloud-based services for video. We were incorporated in Delaware in August 2004. With our Emmy
®
-winning technology and award-winning services, we help our customers realize
 
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the potential of video to address business-critical challenges. Customers rely on our suite of products, services, and expertise to reduce the cost and complexity associated with publishing, distributing, measuring and monetizing video across devices.
We sell five core video products that help our customers use video to further their businesses in meaningful ways: (1) Video Cloud, our flagship product and the world’s leading online video platform, enables our customers to quickly and easily distribute high-quality video to Internet-connected devices; (2) Brightcove Live, our industry-leading solution for live streaming, delivers high-quality viewer experiences at scale; (3) Brightcove Beacon, a purpose-built application that enables companies to launch premium OTT video experiences quickly and cost effectively, across devices and with the flexibility of multiple monetization models; (4) Brightcove Player, an exceptionally fast, cloud-based technology for creating and managing video experiences; and (5) Zencoder, a powerful, cloud-based video encoding technology.
Customers can complement their use of our core products with modular technologies that provide enhanced capabilities such as (1) innovative ad insertion and video stitching through Brightcove SSAI; (2) efficient publication of videos to Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube through Brightcove Social; (3) an app for creating marketing campaigns with insightful data and industry benchmarks through Brightcove Campaign; and (4) create branded video experience by accessing templates with
built-in
best practices through Brightcove Gallery.
We have also brought to market several video solutions, which are comprised of a suite of video technologies that address specific customer
use-cases
and needs: (1) Virtual Events Experience helps brands to transform events into customized virtual experiences; (2) Brightcove Video Marketing Suite, enables marketers to use video to drive brand awareness, engagement and conversion; and (3) Brightcove Enterprise Video Suite, provides an enterprise-class platform for internal communications, employee training, live streaming, marketing and ecommerce videos; and (4)
Brightcove CorpTV
provides a new way to deliver marketing videos, product announcements, training programs, and other live and on-demand content in a branded experience for companies.
Our philosophy for the next few years will continue to be to invest in our product strategy and development, sales,
and go-to-market activities
to support our long-term revenue growth. We believe these investments will help us address some of the challenges facing our business such as demand for our products by existing and potential customers, rapid technological change in our industry, increased competition and resulting price sensitivity. These investments include support for the expansion of our infrastructure within our hosting facilities, the hiring of additional technical and sales personnel, the innovation of new features for existing products and the development of new products. We believe this strategy will help us retain our existing customers, increase our average annual subscription revenue per premium customer and lead to the acquisition of new customers. Additionally, we believe customer growth will enable us to achieve economies of scale which will reduce our cost of goods sold, research and development and general and administrative expenses as a percentage of total revenue.
As of December 31, 2021, and 2020 we had 687 and 623 employees, respectively.
We generate revenue by offering our products to customers on a subscription-based, software as a service, or SaaS, model. Our revenue grew from $197.4 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 to $211.1 million in the year ended December 31, 2021, primarily related to an increase in revenue from our subscription-based SaaS. Our consolidated net income was $5.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, and our consolidated net loss was $5.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Included in consolidated net income for the year ended December 31, 2021 was merger-related expense, stock-based compensation expense and amortization of acquired intangible assets of $300,000, $10.0 million and $3.1 million, respectively. Included in consolidated net loss for the year ended December 31, 2020 was merger-related expenses, stock-based compensation expense and amortization of acquired intangible assets of $5.8 million, $8.8 million, and $3.4 million, respectively.
For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, our revenue derived from customers located outside North America was 44% and 45%, respectively. We expect the percentage of total net revenue derived from outside North America to increase in future periods as we continue to expand our international operations.
 
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Key Metrics
We regularly review a number of metrics, including the following key metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions.
The following table includes our key metrics for the periods presented:
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
 
    
    2021    
   
    2020    
 
Customers (at period end)
                
Premium
     2,227       2,279  
Volume
     908       1,051  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total customers (at period end)
     3,135       3,330  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net revenue retention rate
     97     95
Recurring dollar retention rate
     90     89
Average annual subscription revenue per premium customer, excluding Starter edition customers (in thousands)
   $ 94.1     $ 89.5  
Average annual subscription revenue per premium customer for Starter edition customers only (in thousands)
   $ 5.1     $ 4.7  
Total backlog, excluding professional services engagements (in millions)
   $ 156.2     $ 148.0  
Total backlog to be recognized over next 12 months, excluding professional services engagements (in millions)
   $ 121.2     $ 114.7  
 
   
Number of Customers
. We define our number of customers at the end of a particular quarter as the number of customers generating subscription revenue at the end of the quarter. We believe the number of customers is a key indicator of our market penetration, the productivity of our sales organization and the value that our products bring to our customers. We classify our customers by including them in either premium or volume offerings. Our premium offerings include our premium Video Cloud customers (Enterprise and Pro editions), our Zencoder customers (other than Zencoder customers on
month-to-month
contracts and
pay-as-you-go
contracts), our SSAI customers, our Player customers, our OTT Flow customers (OTT Flow is our partner-based OTT platform, which preceded Brightcove Beacon), our Virtual Event Experience customers, our Video Marketing Suite customers, our Enterprise Video Suite customers, our Brightcove Beacon customers, our Brightcove Engage customers, our Brightcove CorpTV
customers, and our Brightcove Campaign customers. Our volume offerings include our Video Cloud Express customers and our Zencoder customers on
month-to-month
contracts and
pay-as-you-go
contracts.
Our
go-to-market
focus and growth strategy is to expand our premium customer base, as we believe our premium customers represent a greater opportunity for our solutions. Premium customers decreased compared to the prior period due to some customers deciding to switch to
in-house
solutions or other third-party solutions and some customers acquired in the Ooyala acquisition deciding not to switch to our solution. Volume customers decreased in recent periods primarily due to our discontinuation of the promotional Video Cloud Express offering. As a result, we have experienced attrition of this base level offering without a corresponding addition of customers. We expect customers using our volume offerings to continue to decrease in 2021 and beyond as we continue to focus on the market for our premium solutions.
 
   
Net Revenue Retention Rate
. We assess our ability to retain and expand customers using a metric we refer to as our net revenue retention rate. We calculate the net revenue retention rate by dividing: (a) the current annualized recurring revenue for premium customers that existed twelve months prior by (b) the annualized recurring revenue for all premium customers that existed twelve months prior. We define annualized recurring revenue for premium customers as the aggregate annualized contract value from our premium customer base, measured as of the end of a given period. We typically
 
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calculate our net revenue retention rate on a quarterly basis. For annual periods, we report net revenue retention rate as the average of the net revenue retention rate for all fiscal quarters included in the period. By dividing the retained recurring revenue by the base recurring revenue, we measure our success in retaining and growing installed revenue from the specific cohort of customers we served at the beginning of the period. The recurring dollar retention rate focuses on contracts up for renewal in a given quarter and only captures expansion/upsells at time of renewal, and is more susceptible to swings than the net revenue retention rate. Accordingly, and as previously disclosed, we plan to continue to report the net revenue retention rate and discontinue reporting recurring dollar retention rate after this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2021.
 
   
Recurring Dollar Retention Rate
. We assess our ability to retain customers using a metric we refer to as our recurring dollar retention rate. We calculate the recurring dollar retention rate by dividing the retained recurring value of subscription revenue for a period by the previous recurring value of subscription revenue for the same period. We define retained recurring value of subscription revenue as the committed subscription fees for all contracts that renew in a given period, including any increase or decrease in contract value. We define previous recurring value of subscription revenue as the recurring value from committed subscription fees for all contracts that expire in that same period. We typically calculate our recurring dollar retention rate on a monthly basis. Recurring dollar retention rate provides visibility into our ongoing revenue.
 
   
Average Annual Subscription Revenue Per Premium Customer
. We define average annual subscription revenue per premium customer as the total subscription revenue from premium customers for an annual period, excluding professional services revenue, divided by the average number of premium customers for that period. We believe that this metric is important in understanding subscription revenue for our premium offerings in addition to the relative size of premium customer arrangements. As our Starter edition has a price point of $199 or $499 per month, we disclose the average annual subscription revenue per premium customer separately for Starter edition customers and all other premium customers.
 
   
Backlog
. We define backlog as the aggregate amount of transaction price that is allocated to performance obligations that have not yet been satisfied, excluding professional service engagements. We believe that this metric is important in understanding future business performance.
COVID-19
Update
While the implications of
the COVID-19 pandemic
remain uncertain, we plan to continue to make investments to support business growth. We believe that the growth of our business is dependent on many factors, including our ability to expand our customer base, increase adoption of our product offerings within existing customers, develop new products and applications to extend the functionality of our products and provide a high level of customer service. We expect to invest in sales and marketing to support customer growth. We also expect to invest in research and development as we continue to introduce new products and applications to extend the functionality of our products. We intend to maintain a high level of customer service and support which we consider critical for our continued success. We also expect to continue to incur general and administrative expenses to support our business and to maintain the infrastructure required to be a public company. We expect to use our cash flow from operations and, if necessary, our credit facility to fund operations.
See the section titled “Risk Factors” included under Item 1A for further discussion of the possible impact of
the COVID-19 pandemic
on our business.
Components of Consolidated Statements of Operations
Revenue
Subscription and Support Revenue
 — We generate subscription and support revenue from the sale of our products.
 
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Video Cloud is offered in two product lines. The first product line is comprised of our premium product editions. All premium editions include functionality to publish and distribute video to Internet-connected devices, with higher levels of premium editions providing additional features and functionality. Customer arrangements are typically
one-year
contracts, which include a subscription to Video Cloud, basic support
and a pre-determined
amount of video streams, bandwidth, transcoding and storage. We also offer gold, platinum and platinum plus support to our premium customers for an additional fee. The pricing for our premium editions is based on the value of our software, as well as the number of users, accounts and usage, which is comprised of video streams, bandwidth, transcoding and storage. Should a customer’s usage exceed the contractual entitlements, the contract will provide the rate at which the customer must pay for actual usage above the contractual entitlements. The second product line is comprised of our volume product edition. Our volume editions target
small and medium-sized businesses, or
SMBs. The volume editions provide customers with the same basic functionality that is offered in our premium product editions but have been designed for customers who have lower usage requirements and do not typically require advanced features and functionality. We discontinued the lower level pricing options for the Express edition of our volume offering and expect the total number of customers using the Express edition to continue to decrease. Customers who purchase the volume editions generally
enter into month-to-month agreements.
Volume customers are generally billed on a monthly basis and pay via a credit card.
Virtual Events Experience, Brightcove Live and Brightcove Player are offered to customers on a subscription basis. Customer arrangements are
typically one-year contracts,
which include a subscription to Virtual Events Experience, Brightcove Live or the Brightcove Player, basic support and
a pre-determined amount
of video streams, bandwidth, transcoding, and storage and only video streams for Brightcove Player. We also offer gold, platinum, and platinum plus support to our Virtual Events Experience, Brightcove Live and Brightcove Player customers for an additional fee. The pricing for these products is based on the value of our software, as well as, the number of users, accounts and usage. Should a customer’s usage exceed the contractual entitlements, the contract will provide the rate at which the customer must pay for actual usage above the contractual entitlements.
Zencoder is offered to customers on a subscription basis, with either committed contracts or
pay-as-you-go
contracts. The pricing is based on usage, which is comprised of minutes of video processed. The committed contracts include a fixed number of minutes of video processed. Should a customer’s usage exceed the contractual entitlements, the contract will provide the rate at which the customer must pay for actual usage above the contractual entitlements. Zencoder customers are considered premium customers other than Zencoder customers
on month-to-month contracts
or pay-as-you-go contracts,
which are considered volume customers.
Brightcove Beacon and Brightcove Campaign are each offered to customers on a subscription basis, with varying levels of functionality, usage entitlements and support based on the size and complexity of a customer’s needs. Customer arrangements are typically
one-year
contracts.
Video Marketing Suite and Enterprise Video Suite are offered to customers on a subscription basis in Starter, Pro and Enterprise editions. The Pro and Enterprise customer arrangements are typically
one-year
contracts, which typically include a subscription to Video Cloud, Gallery, Brightcove Social (for Video Marketing Suite customers) or Brightcove Live (for Enterprise Video Suite customers), basic support and a
pre-determined
amount of video streams or plays (for Video Marketing Suite customers), viewers (for Enterprise Video Suite customers), bandwidth and storage or videos. We also generally offer gold support or platinum support to these customers for an additional fee, which includes extended phone support. The pricing for our Pro and Enterprise editions is based on the number of users, accounts and usage, which is comprised of video streams or plays, viewers, bandwidth and storage or videos. Should a customer’s usage exceed the contractual entitlements, the contract will provide the rate at which the customer must pay for actual usage above the contractual entitlements, or will require the customer to upgrade its package upon renewal. The Starter edition provides customers with the same basic functionality that is offered in our Pro and Enterprise editions but has been designed for customers who have lower usage requirements and do not typically seek advanced features and
 
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functionality. Customers who purchase the Starter edition may enter into
one-year
agreements or
month-to-month
agreements. Starter customers with
month-to-month
agreements are generally billed on a monthly basis and pay via a credit card.
All Brightcove Beacon, Brightcove CorpTV
, OTT Flow, Brightcove Campaign, Brightcove Live, SSAI, Player, Virtual Events Experience, Video Marketing Suite, 
and Enterprise Video Suite customers are considered premium customers.
Professional Services and Other Revenue
— Professional services and other revenue consists of services such as implementation, software customizations and project management for customers who subscribe to our premium editions. These arrangements are priced either on a fixed fee basis with a portion due upon contract signing and the remainder due when the related services have been completed, or on a time and materials basis.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of subscription, support and professional services revenue primarily consists of costs related to supporting and hosting our product offerings and delivering our professional services. These costs include salaries, benefits, incentive compensation and stock-based compensation expense related to the management of our data centers, our customer support team and our professional services staff. In addition to these expenses, we incur third-party service provider costs such as data center and content delivery network, or CDN, expenses, allocated overhead, depreciation expense and amortization of capitalized
internal-use
software development costs and acquired intangible assets. We allocate overhead costs such as rent, utilities and supplies to all departments based on relative headcount. As such, general overhead expenses are reflected in cost of revenue in addition to each operating expense category. The costs associated with providing professional services are significantly higher as a percentage of related revenue than the costs associated with delivering our subscription and support services due to the labor costs of providing professional services.
Cost of revenue decreased in absolute dollars from 2020 to 2021. In future periods we expect our cost of revenue will increase in absolute dollars as our revenue increases. Cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue could fluctuate from period to period depending on the number of our professional services engagements and any associated costs relating to the delivery of subscription services and the timing of significant expenditures. To the extent that our customer base grows, we intend to continue to invest additional resources in expanding the delivery capability of our products and other services. The timing of these additional expenses could affect our cost of revenue, both in terms of absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue, in any particular quarterly or annual period.
Operating Expenses
We classify our operating expenses as follows:
Research and Development
. Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel and related expenses for our research and development staff, including salaries, benefits, incentive compensation and stock-based compensation, in addition to the costs associated with contractors and allocated overhead. We have focused our research and development efforts on expanding the functionality and scalability of our products and enhancing their ease of use, as well as creating new product offerings. We expect research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we intend to continue to periodically release new features and functionality, expand our product offerings, continue the localization of our products in various languages, upgrade and extend our service offerings, and develop new technologies. Over the long term, we believe that research and development expenses as a percentage of revenue will decrease, but will vary depending upon the mix of revenue from new and existing products, features and functionality, as well as changes in the technology that our products must support, such as new operating systems or new Internet-connected devices.
Sales and Marketing
. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel and related expenses for our sales and marketing staff, including salaries, benefits, incentive compensation, commissions, stock-based
 
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compensation and travel costs, amortization of acquired intangible assets, in addition to costs associated with marketing and promotional events, corporate communications, advertising, other brand building and product marketing expenses and allocated overhead. Our sales and marketing expenses have increased in absolute dollars in each of the last three years. We intend to continue to invest in sales and marketing and expand the sale of our product offerings within our existing customer base, build brand awareness and sponsor additional marketing events. Accordingly, we expect sales and marketing expense to continue to be our most significant operating expense in future periods. Over the long term, we believe that sales and marketing expense as a percentage of revenue will decrease, but will vary depending upon the mix of revenue from new and existing customers
and from small, medium-sized and enterprise customers,
as well as changes in the productivity of our sales and marketing programs.
General and Administrative
. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel and related expenses for executive, legal, finance, information technology and human resources functions, including salaries, benefits, incentive compensation and stock-based compensation. General and administrative expenses also include the costs associated with professional fees, insurance premiums, other corporate expenses and allocated overhead. Over the long term, we believe that general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue will decrease.
Merger-related
. Merger-related costs consist of expenses related to mergers and acquisitions, integration costs and general corporate development activities.
Other Expense
Other expense consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash, cash equivalents, foreign exchange gains and losses.
Income Taxes
As part of the process of preparing our consolidated financial statements, we are required to estimate our taxes in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We account for income taxes in accordance with the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and income tax bases of assets and liabilities using statutory rates. In addition, this method requires a valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. We have provided a valuation allowance against our existing U.S. net deferred tax assets and deferred tax assets of certain foreign subsidiaries at December 31, 2021. We maintain net deferred tax liabilities for temporary differences related to our Japanese and Portuguese subsidiaries.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Our cost of revenue, research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses include stock-based compensation expense. Stock-based compensation expense represents the fair value of outstanding stock options and restricted stock awards, which is recognized as expense over the respective stock option and restricted stock award service periods. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, we recorded stock-based compensation expense of $10.0 million, $8.8 million, and $9.3 million, respectively. We expect stock-based compensation expense to increase in absolute dollars in future periods.
Foreign Currency Translation
With regard to our international operations, we frequently enter into transactions in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, our revenue, expenses and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly changes in the euro, British pound, Australian dollar, and Japanese yen. In periods when the U.S. dollar declines in value as compared to the foreign currencies in which we conduct
 
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business, our foreign currency-based revenue and expenses generally increase in value when translated into U.S. dollars. We expect the percentage of total net revenue derived from outside North America to increase in future periods as we continue to expand our international operations.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
We believe that the following significant accounting policies, which are more fully described in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form
10-K,
involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.
Revenue Recognition
We primarily derive revenue from the sale of our online video platform, which enables our customers to publish and distribute video to Internet-connected devices quickly, easily and in a cost-effective and high-quality manner. Revenue is derived from three primary sources: (1) the subscription to our technology and related support; (2) hosting, bandwidth and encoding services; and (3) professional services, which include customization services.
Under ASC 606, when the transaction price includes a variable amount of consideration, an entity is required to estimate the consideration that is expected to be received for a particular customer arrangement. We evaluate variable consideration for usage-based fees at contract
inception and re-evaluate quarterly over
the course of the contract. Specifically, we estimate the revenue pertaining to a customer’s usage that is expected to exceed the annual entitlement allowance and allocate such revenue to the distinct service within the related contract that gives rise to the variable payment. Estimates of variable consideration include analyzing customer usage against the applicable entitlement limit at the end of each reporting period and estimating the amount and timing of additional amounts to be invoiced in connection with projected usage. Estimates of variable consideration relating to customer usage do not include amounts for which it is probable that a significant reversal will occur. Determining the amount of variable consideration to recognize as revenue involves significant judgment on the part of management and it is possible that actual revenue will deviate from estimates over the course of a customer’s committed contract term.
We periodically enter into multiple-element service arrangements that include platform subscription fees, support fees, and, in certain cases, other professional services. These contracts include multiple promises that we evaluate to determine if the promises are separate performance obligations. Performance obligations are identified based on services to be transferred to a customer that are both capable of being distinct and are distinct within the context of the contract. Once we determine the performance obligations, we determine the transaction price, which includes estimating the amount of variable consideration to be included in the transaction price, if any. We then allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation in the contract based on a relative stand-alone selling price method. The transaction price post allocation is recognized as revenue as the related performance obligation is satisfied.
 
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Income Taxes
We are subject to income taxes in both the United States and international jurisdictions, and we use estimates in determining our provision for income taxes. We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method for accounting and reporting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and income tax basis of assets and liabilities using statutory rates. This process requires us to project our current tax liability and estimate our deferred tax assets and liabilities, including net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we considered our recent operating results, future taxable income projections and feasible tax planning strategies. We have provided a valuation allowance against substantially all of our net U.S. deferred tax assets and deferred tax assets of certain foreign subsidiaries at December 31, 2021. We recognized a deferred tax liability in the U.S. for a portion of our indefinite lived intangibles and other deferred tax liabilities that would not be offset against deferred tax assets. We maintain net deferred tax liabilities for temporary differences related to our Japanese and Portuguese subsidiaries. Due to the evolving nature and complexity of tax regulations combined with the number of jurisdictions in which we operate, it is possible that our estimates of our tax liability could change in the future, which may result in additional tax liabilities and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had no material unrecognized tax benefits.
Business Combinations
We record tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations under the purchase method of accounting. Amounts paid for each acquisition are allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their fair values at the date of acquisition. We then allocate the purchase price in excess of net tangible assets acquired to identifiable intangible assets based on detailed valuations that use information and assumptions provided by management. We allocate any excess purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed to goodwill.
Significant management judgments and assumptions are required in determining the fair value of acquired assets and liabilities, particularly acquired intangible assets. The valuation of purchased intangible assets is based upon estimates of the future performance and cash flows from the acquired business. Each asset is measured at fair value from the perspective of a market participant. Critical estimates in valuing purchased technology and customer lists include future cash flows that we expect to generate from the acquired assets. If the subsequent actual results and updated projections of the underlying business activity change compared with the assumptions and projections used to develop these values, we could experience impairment charges which could be material. In addition, we have estimated the economic lives of certain acquired assets and these lives are used to calculate depreciation and amortization expense. If our estimates of the economic lives change, depreciation or amortization expenses could be accelerated or slowed.
If different assumptions are used, it could materially impact the purchase price allocation and adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
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Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented.
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
 
    
2021
   
2020
   
2019
 
    
(in thousands, except share and per share
data)
 
Revenue:
                        
Subscription and support revenue
   $ 198,929     $ 187,341     $ 173,818  
Professional services and other revenue
     12,164       10,012       10,637  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total revenue
     211,093       197,353       184,455  
Cost of revenue:
                        
Cost of subscription and support revenue
     62,773       67,124       67,064  
Cost of professional services and other revenue
     10,255       8,973       8,405  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total cost of revenue
     73,028       76,097       75,469  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Gross profit
     138,065       121,256       108,986  
Operating expenses:
                        
Research and development
     31,718       33,978       32,535  
Sales and marketing
     71,177       59,812       60,375  
General and administrative
     29,261       27,021       25,692  
Merger-related
     300       5,768       11,447  
Other (benefit) expense
     (1,965     —         —    
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total operating expenses
     130,491       126,579       130,049  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Income (loss) from operations
     7,574       (5,323     (21,063
Other income (expense), net
     (1,375     128       (280
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Income (loss) before income taxes
     6,199       (5,195     (21,343
Provision for income taxes
     802       618       560  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
   $ 5,397     $ (5,813   $ (21,903
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per share
                        
Basic
   $ 0.13     $ (0.15   $ (0.58
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Diluted
   $ 0.13     $ (0.15   $ (0.58
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Weighted-average number of common shares used in computing net income (loss) per share
                        
Basic
     40,717       39,473       38,028  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Diluted
     42,200       39,473       38,028  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Overview of Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Total revenue increased by 7%, or $13.7 million, in 2021 compared to 2020 due to an increase in subscription and support revenue of 6%, or $11.6 million, primarily related to the continued growth of our customer base for our premium offerings including sales to both new and existing customers. The increase in professional services and other revenue of 21%, or $2.2 million, was primarily related to the size and number of professional services engagements in 2021 compared to 2020. Professional services and other revenue will vary from period to period depending on the number of implementations and other projects that are in process. In addition, our revenue from premium offerings grew by $14.5 million, or 7%, in 2021 compared to 2020. Our ability to continue to provide the product functionality and performance that our customers require will be a major factor in our ability to continue to increase revenue.
 
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Our gross profit increased by $16.8 million, or 14%, in 2021 compared to 2020, primarily due to a decrease in the cost of subscription and support revenue and our transition of acquired Ooyala customers to our technology during 2020. Our ability to continue to maintain our overall gross profit will depend primarily on our ability to continue controlling our costs of delivery.
Income from operations was $7.6 million in 2021 compared to a loss from operations of $5.3 million in 2020. Our ability to continue experiencing operating income will depend primarily on greater revenue from both new and existing customers and from improved efficiencies.
Revenue
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
             
    
2021
   
2020
   
Change
 
Revenue by Product Line
  
Amount
    
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
    
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
   
%
 
     (in thousands, except percentages)  
Premium
   $ 208,183        99   $ 193,695        98   $ 14,488       7
Volume
     2,910        1       3,658        2       (748     (20
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total
   $ 211,093        100   $ 197,353        100   $ 13,740       7
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
During 2021, revenue increased by $13.7 million, or 7%, compared to 2020, primarily due to an increase in revenue from our premium offerings, which consist of subscription and support revenue, as well as professional services and other revenue. The increase in premium revenue of $14.5 million, or 7%, is primarily the result of a 5% increase in average revenue per premium customer. During 2021, volume revenue decreased by $748,000, or 20%, compared to 2020, driven by a decrease in customers as we continue to focus on the market for our premium solutions.
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
              
    
2021
   
2020
   
Change
 
Revenue by Type
  
Amount
    
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
    
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
    
%
 
     (in thousands, except percentages)  
Subscription and support
   $ 198,929        94   $ 187,341        95   $ 11,588        6
Professional services and other
     12,164        6       10,012        5       2,152        21  
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $ 211,093        100   $ 197,353        100   $ 13,740        7
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
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During 2021, subscription and support revenue increased by $11.6 million, or 6%, compared to 2020. The increase was primarily related to a 5% increase in average revenue per premium customer during the year ended December 31, 2021. In addition, professional services and other revenue increased by $2.2 million, or 21%, compared to the prior year. Professional services and other revenue will vary from period to period depending on the number of implementations and other projects that are in process.
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
             
    
2021
   
2020
   
Change
 
Revenue by Geography
  
Amount
    
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
    
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
   
%
 
     (in thousands, except percentages)  
North America
   $ 119,079        56   $ 107,686        55   $ 11,393       11
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Europe
     37,947        18       34,001        17       3,946       12  
Japan
     25,272        13       25,745        13       (473     (2
Asia Pacific
     28,261        13       28,984        15       (723     (2
Other
     534        —         937        —         (403     (43
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
International subtotal
     92,014        44       89,667        45       2,347       3  
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total
   $ 211,093        100   $ 197,353        100   $ 13,740       7
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
For purposes of this section, we designate revenue by geographic regions based upon the locations of our customers. North America is comprised of revenue from the United States, Canada and Mexico. International is comprised of revenue from locations outside of North America. Depending on the timing of new customer contracts, revenue mix from a geographic region can vary from period to period.
During 2021, total revenue for North America increased $11.4 million, or 11%, compared to 2020. During 2021, total revenue outside of North America increased $2.3 million, or 3%, compared to 2020. The increase in revenue from international regions is primarily related to increases in revenue in Europe. This increase is primarily due to an increase in average revenue per premium customer as discussed above.
Cost of Revenue
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
             
    
2021
   
2020
   
Change
 
Cost of Revenue
  
Amount
    
Percentage of

Related

Revenue
   
Amount
    
Percentage of

Related

Revenue
   
Amount
   
%
 
     (in thousands, except percentages)  
Subscription and support
   $ 62,773        32   $ 67,124        36   $ (4,351     (6 )% 
Professional services and other
     10,255        84       8,973        90       1,282       14  
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total
   $ 73,028        35   $ 76,097        39   $ (3,069     (4 )% 
    
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
During 2021, cost of subscription and support revenue decreased $4.4 million, or 6%, compared to 2020. This decrease corresponds to a decrease in our content delivery network, third-party software integration, and partner commissions expenses of $3.1 million, $841,000 and $437,000, respectively. Our transition of acquired Ooyala customers to our technology during 2020 also resulted in reduced costs in the current year.
During 2021, cost of professional services and other revenue increased $1.3 million, or 14%, compared to 2020. This increase corresponds to increases in contractor expenses of $1.2 million due to higher levels of implementation and professional services provided, as well as increases in employee-related costs of $300,000. These increases were offset in part by decreases in computer and maintenance support expenses of $166,000.
 
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Gross Profit
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
              
    
2021
   
2020
   
Change
 
Gross Profit
  
Amount
    
Percentage of

Related

Revenue
   
Amount
    
Percentage of

Related

Revenue
   
Amount
    
%
 
     (in thousands, except percentages)  
Subscription and support
   $ 136,156        68   $ 120,217        64   $ 15,939        13
Professional services and other
     1,909        16       1,039        10       870        84  
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $ 138,065        65   $ 121,256        61   $ 16,809        14
  
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
 
The overall gross profit percentage was 65% and 61% for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Subscription and support gross profit increased $15.9 million, or 13%, compared to 2020. In addition, professional services and other gross profit increased $870,000, or 84%, compared to 2020. It is likely that gross profit, as a percentage of revenue, will fluctuate quarter by quarter due to the timing and mix of subscription and support revenue and professional services and other revenue, and the type, timing and duration of service required in delivering certain projects.
Operating Expenses
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
             
    
2021
   
2020
   
Change
 
Operating Expenses
  
Amount
   
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
    
Percentage of

Revenue
   
Amount
   
%
 
     (in thousands, except percentages)  
Research and development
   $ 31,718       15   $ 33,978        17   $ (2,260     (7 )% 
Sales and marketing
     71,177       34     59,812        30     11,365       19
General and administrative
     29,261       14     27,021        14     2,240       8
Merger-related
     300       —         5,768        3     (5,468     (95 )% 
Other
     (1,965     (1 )%      —          —         (1,965     —    
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total
   $ 130,491       62   $ 126,579        64   $ 3,912       3
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Research and Development
.
 During 2021, research and development expense decreased by $2.3 million, or 7%, compared to 2020. This decrease was primarily due to decreases in employee-related, rent, contractor, and travel expenses of $1.7 million, $1.1 million, $156,000, and $196,000, respectively. These decreases were offset by increases in stock-based compensation expense and amortization of capitalized internal use software of $599,000 and $335,000, respectively. We expect our research and development expense, as percentage of revenue, to remain relatively unchanged in future periods.
Sales and Marketing
.
During 2021, sales and marketing expense increased by $11.4 million, or 19%, compared to 2020 primarily due to increases in employee-related, commissions, and marketing program expenses of $5.1 million, $4.5 million, and $4.1 million, respectively. These increases were partially offset by decreases in rent, contractor, and intangible amortization expenses of $1.2 million, $701,000, and $256,000, respectively. We expect that our sales and marketing expense will increase in absolute dollars along with our revenue, as we continue to expand sales coverage and build brand awareness through what we believe are cost-effective channels.
General and Administrative
.
During 2021, general and administrative expense increased by $2.2 million, or 8%, compared to 2020 primarily due to increases in outside accounting and legal fee, employee-related, and stock-based compensation expenses of $1.2 million, $873,000, and $643,000, respectively. These increases were offset by decreases in rent expenses of $266,000. In future periods, we expect general and administrative expense, as a percentage of revenue, to remain relatively unchanged.
 
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Merger-Related
.
During 2021, merger-related expense decreased by $5.5 million, or 95%, compared to 2020 primarily due to costs incurred in connection with general merger and related activities in 2020 which did not recur in the current period.
Other (benefit) expense.
On March 27, 2020, in response to
the COVID-19
pandemic, the U.S. government enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, which was amended by the Consolidated Appropriations Act in December of 2020 (the “CARES Act”). The CARES Act provides numerous tax provisions and other stimulus measures, including the creation of certain employee retention credits. In the first quarter of 2021, we recognized a benefit of $2.0 million from the CARES Act related to employee retention credits. The benefit was recorded as Other (benefit) expense.
Overview of Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
Please see our Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2020 for an overview of results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Cash and cash equivalents.
Our cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2021 were held for working capital purposes and were invested primarily in money market funds. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had $13.8 million and $17.1 million, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents held by subsidiaries in international locations, including subsidiaries located in Japan and the United Kingdom. As a result of changes in tax law, these earnings can be repatriated to the United States
tax-free
but could still be subject to foreign withholding taxes. On November 1, 2021, we completed the acquisition of video interactivity technology assets that were provided by a 3
rd
party partner for $2.0 million in cash. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital and capital expenditure needs over at least the next 12 months.
 
    
Year Ended December 31,
 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flow Data
  
2021
    
2020
    
2019
 
     (in thousands)  
Cash flows provided by operating activities
     19,563        21,312        2,708  
Cash flows used in investing activities
     (10,842      (8,724      (12,618
Cash flows provided by financing activities
     702        1,585        3,177  
Accounts receivable, net.
Our accounts receivable balance fluctuates from period to period, which affects our cash flow from operating activities. The fluctuations vary depending on the timing of our billing activity, cash collections, and changes to our allowance for doubtful accounts. In many instances we receive cash payment from a customer prior to the time we are able to recognize revenue on a transaction. We record these payments as deferred revenue, which has a positive effect on our accounts receivable balances.
Cash flows provided by operating activities.
Cash provided by operating activities consists primarily of net income adjusted for certain
non-cash
items including depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense, the provision for bad debts and the effect of changes in working capital and other activities. Cash provided by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2021 was $19.6 million. The cash flow provided by operating activities primarily resulted from
net non-cash charges
of $18.4 million and net income of $5.4 million, partially offset by changes in our
 
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operating assets and liabilities of $4.3 million.
Net non-cash expenses
consisted of $10.0 million for stock-based compensation, $8.3 million for depreciation and amortization, and $159,000 for provision for reserves on accounts receivable. Cash outflows from changes in our operating assets and liabilities consisted primarily of a decrease in accrued expenses of $5.2 million, an increase in other assets of $1.4 million, an increase in accounts receivable of $846,000, and a decrease in accounts payable of $683,000. These outflows were offset in part by a decrease in deferred revenue of $3.2 million.
Cash flows used in investing activities.
Cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2021 was $10.8 million, consisting primarily of $6.6 million for the capitalization of
internal-use
software costs, $2.2 million in capital expenditures to support the business, and $2.0 million for the purchase of a technology asset of a company on November 1, 2021.
Cash flows provided by financing activities.
Cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2021 was $702,000, consisting of proceeds received on the exercise of common stock options of $2.8 million, offset by other activity of $2.1 million.
Credit facility.
On December 28, 2020, the Company entered into an amended and restated loan and security agreement with a lender (the “Loan Agreement”) providing for up to a $30.0 million asset-based line of credit (the “Line of Credit”). Borrowings under the Line of Credit are secured by substantially all of our assets, excluding our intellectual property. We were in compliance with all covenants under the Line of Credit as of December 31, 2021. As we have not drawn on the Line of Credit, there are no amounts outstanding as of December 31, 2021.
We assessed the effect we
believe COVID-19 might
have on our liquidity and believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and the capital available under our credit facility will be sufficient to meet our anticipated working capital and capital expenditure needs over at least the next 12 months. On March 25, 2020, we borrowed $10.0 million on our line of credit in anticipation of any operating cash needs in light
of COVID-19. The
$10 million borrowed was fully repaid by December 31, 2020. The effective interest rate for the amounts borrowed during 2020 was 4%.
Net operating loss carryforwards.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company had federal net operating losses of approximately $199.4 million, of which $161.8 million are available to offset future taxable income, if any, through 2037 and $37.6 million which are available to offset future taxable income indefinitely. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had state net operating losses of approximately $92.3 million, of which $89.2 million are available to offset future taxable income, if any, through 2041 and $3.1 million which are available to offset future taxable income indefinitely. The Company also had federal and state research and development tax credits of $9.0 million and $5.5 million, respectively, which expire in various amounts through 2041. The net operating loss and tax credit amounts are subject to annual limitations under Section 382 change of ownership rules under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
In assessing our ability to utilize our net deferred tax assets, we considered whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of our net deferred tax assets will not be realized. Based upon the level of our historical U.S. losses and future projections over the period in which the net deferred tax assets are deductible, at this time, we believe it is more likely than not that we will not realize the benefits of these deductible differences. Accordingly, we have provided a valuation allowance against our U.S. deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
 
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Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Our principal commitments consist primarily of obligations under our leases for our office space and contractual commitments for content delivery network services, hosting and other support services. As of December 31, 2021, we had operating lease obligations of $25,401, with $2,425 payable within 12 months. As of December 31, 2021, we had outstanding purchase obligations of $16,006, with $15,775 payable within 12 months. Other than these lease obligations and contractual commitments, we do not have commercial commitments under lines of credit, standby repurchase obligations or other such debt arrangements. The following table summarizes these contractual obligations at December 31, 2021:
 
    
Payment Due by Period
 
(in thousands)
  
Total
    
Less than 1
Year
    
More than 1
Year
 
Operating lease obligations
   $ 25,401      $ 2,425      $ 22,976  
Outstanding purchase obligations
     16,006        15,775        231  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
   $ 41,407      $ 18,200      $ 23,207  
  
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Anticipated Cash Flows
We expect to incur significant operating costs, particularly related to services delivery costs, sales and marketing and research and development, for the foreseeable future in order to execute our business plan. We anticipate that such operating costs, as well as planned capital expenditures will constitute a material use of our cash resources. As a result, our net cash flows will depend heavily on the level of future sales, changes in deferred revenue and our ability to manage infrastructure costs.
We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months. Our future working capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the rate of our revenue growth, our introduction of new products and enhancements, and our expansion of sales and marketing and product development activities. To the extent that our cash and cash equivalents, and cash flow from operating activities are insufficient to fund our future activities, we may need to raise additional funds through bank credit arrangements or public or private equity or debt financings. We also may need to raise additional funds in the event we determine in the future to acquire businesses, technologies and products that will complement our existing operations. In the event funding is required, we may not be able to obtain bank credit arrangements or equity or debt financing on terms acceptable to us or at all.
Other
On February 9, 2022, we announced that the Board of Directors appointed Marc DeBevoise as Chief Executive Officer of the Company and a Class II director of the Board of Directors, effective as of Mr. DeBevoise’s employment start date, expected to be on March 28, 2022. Mr. DeBevoise will fill the vacancy created by Mr. Ray’s resignation on the Board, effective as of Mr. DeBevoise’s employment start date. The term of the Company’s Class II directors, including Mr. DeBevoise, expires at the annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2023 or upon the election and qualification of successor directors. Mr. DeBevoise, has served as Vice Chairman of the Board and President of Argus Capital Corporation, a tech-driven-media focused special purpose acquisition corporation (ARGU), as Chief Executive Officer and President of ViacomCBS Digital (previously known as CBS Interactive) and as Chief Digital Officer of ViacomCBS, and as President and Chief Operating Officer of CBS Interactive. Mr. DeBevoise has also served as a member of the board of directors at Limelight Networks (LLNW), a provider of edge cloud, content delivery and security computing services. Mr. DeBevoise earned his B.A. in Economics and Computer Science from Tufts University and earned his M.B.A. with distinction in Entertainment, Media & Technology and Finance from NYU’s Stern School of Business. Mr. DeBevoise was selected to serve on our Board of Directors due to the perspective and experience he brings as the appointed Chief Executive Officer and his prior experience as an executive in media, technology and digital and
 
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streaming industries. Mr. DeBevoise’s employment agreement with the Company can be found in Exhibit 99.1 to the our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 9, 2022.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For information on recent accounting pronouncements, see Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Standards in the notes to the consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
 
ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We have operations both within the United States and internationally, and we are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. These risks include primarily foreign exchange risks, interest rate and inflation.
Financial instruments
Financial instruments meeting fair value disclosure requirements consist of cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable. The fair value of these financial instruments approximates their carrying amount.
Foreign currency exchange risk
Our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly changes in the euro, British pound, Australian dollar and Japanese yen. Except for revenue transactions in Japan, we enter into transactions directly with substantially all of our foreign customers.
Percentage of revenues and expenses in foreign currency is as follows:
 
    
Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 
    
2021
   
2020
 
Revenues generated in locations outside the United States
     47     50
Revenues in currencies other than the United States dollar (1)
     29     30
Expenses in currencies other than the United States dollar (1)
     17     15
 
(1)
Percentage of revenues and expenses denominated in foreign currency for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020:
 
    
Twelve Months Ended

December 31, 2021
 
    
Revenues
   
Expenses
 
Euro
     8     1
British pound
     6     5
Japanese Yen
     12     3
Other
     3     8
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total
     29     17
 
    
Twelve Months Ended

December 31, 2020
 
    
Revenues
   
Expenses
 
Euro
     8     1
British pound
     6     6
Japanese Yen
     13     2
Other
     3     6
  
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total
     30     15
 
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As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, we had $8.3 million and $9.0 million, respectively, of receivables denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We also maintain cash accounts denominated in currencies other than the local currency, which exposes us to foreign exchange rate movements.
In addition, although our foreign subsidiaries have intercompany accounts that are eliminated upon consolidation, these accounts expose us to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. Exchange rate fluctuations on short-term intercompany accounts are recorded in our consolidated statements of operations under “other income (expense), net”, while exchange rate fluctuations on long-term intercompany accounts are recorded as a component of other comprehensive income (loss), as they are considered part of our net investment.
Currently, our largest foreign currency exposures are the euro and British pound primarily because our European operations have a higher proportion of our local currency denominated expenses, in addition to the Japanese Yen as result of our ongoing operations in Japan. Relative to foreign currency exposures existing at December 31, 2021, a 10% unfavorable movement in foreign currency exchange rates would expose us to significant losses in earnings or cash flows or significantly diminish the fair value of our foreign currency financial instruments. For the year ended December 31, 2021, we estimated that a 10% unfavorable movement in foreign currency exchange rates would have decreased revenues by $6.0 million, decreased expenses by $3.5 million and increased operating losses by $2.6 million. The estimates used assume that all currencies move in the same direction at the same time and the ratio of
non-U.S.
dollar denominated revenue and expenses to U.S. dollar denominated revenue and expenses does not change from current levels. Since a portion of our revenue is deferred revenue that is recorded at different foreign currency exchange rates, the impact to revenue of a change in foreign currency exchange rates is recognized over time, and the impact to expenses is more immediate, as expenses are recognized at the current foreign currency exchange rate in effect at the time the expense is incurred. All of the potential changes noted above are based on sensitivity analyses performed on our financial results as of December 31, 2021.
Interest rate risk
We had cash and cash equivalents totaling $45.7 million at December 31, 2021. Cash and cash equivalents were invested primarily in money market funds and are held for working capital purposes. We do not use derivative financial instruments in our investment portfolio. Declines in interest rates, however, would reduce future interest income. In the event that we borrow under our line of credit, the related interest expense recorded would be subject to changes in the rate of interest.
 
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Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Brightcove Inc.
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
 
    
Page No.
 
    
F-1
 
    
F-3
 
    
F-4
 
    
F-5
 
    
F-6
 
    
F-7
 
    
F-8
 
 
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Brightcove Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Brightcove Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated February 18, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
 
  
Revenue Recognition – Variable Consideration
Description of the Matter
   As described in Note 2 and Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s contracts contain transaction prices with variable amounts of consideration related to usage-based fees. The Company estimates the revenue pertaining to a customer’s usage that is expected to exceed the annual entitlement allowance, after consideration of any constraints, which is recognized ratably over the service period.
 
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Table of Contents
  
 
Auditing the Company’s measurement of variable consideration is especially challenging and subjective because estimating customers usage involves assessing a large volume of contracts and subjective management assumptions related to estimated future usage. Changes in assumptions of estimated future usage can have a material effect on the amount of revenue recognized in the period.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
  
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design, and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls over the assessment and recording of variable consideration including the Company’s evaluation of potential estimated future usage at the contract level including the impacts of any constraints. We identified and tested controls used for the accumulation of the actual usage to date as well as the assessment of the estimated forecasted usage and related impacts of any constraints.
 
To test variable consideration, our audit procedures included, amongst others, testing the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data used in the Company’s calculation. This included, for a sample of contracts, agreeing the entitlement allowances to the underlying contracts and agreeing the actual usage to the underlying revenue systems. To assess management’s variable consideration assumptions, for a sample of contracts, we tested management’s estimated usage over the annual entitlement allowance by comparing the entitlement and usage rates to actual customer experience, interviewed sales representatives to understand the actual and expected usage, and evaluated the impacts of any related constraints. We also tested the Company’s historical lookback analysis on a sample basis. Lastly, we performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate how the changes in management’s assumptions of future usage based on historical trends could affect revenue recognized.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2010.
Boston, Massachusetts
February 18, 2022
 
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Brightcove Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
    
December 31,
 
    
2021
   
2020
 
    
(in thousands, except share
and per share data)
 
Assets
                
Current assets:
                
Cash and cash equivalents
   $ 45,739     $ 37,472  
Accounts receivable, net of allowance of $353 and $648 at December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively
     29,866       29,305  
Prepaid expenses
     7,792       5,760  
Other current assets
     10,833       12,978  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total current assets
     94,230       85,515  
Property and equipment, net
     20,514       15,968  
Operating lease
right-of-use
asset
     24,891       8,699  
Intangible assets, net
     9,276       10,465  
Goodwill
     60,902       60,902  
Other assets
     6,655       5,254  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total assets
   $ 216,468     $ 186,803  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
                
Current liabilities:
                
Accounts payable
   $ 11,039     $ 10,456  
Accrued expenses
     20,925       25,397  
Operating lease liability
     2,600       4,346  
Deferred revenue
     62,057       58,741  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total current liabilities
     96,621       98,940  
Operating lease liability, net of current portion
     22,801       5,498  
Other liabilities
     786       2,763  
    
 
 
   
 
 
 
Total liabilities
     120,208       107,201  
Commitments and contingencies
(Note
8
)
                
Stockholders’ equity:
                
Undesignated preferred stock, $